Tag Archives: Landscape

Assignment 5 Illustration and Narrative

Change in the Village is the story of two families who lived, at different times, in the same valley on the Surrey and Hampshire borders and the story of the village that grew up there. The narrative starts when an itinerant farm labourer and veteran of the Crimean War marries a local girl and settles in the valley and ends, over a hundred years later, when my childhood in the village finishes and I begin to attend the Grammar School in the nearest town.

It is an exploration of shared memories and common values, of lifestyles that have all but been forgotten, of how the Surrey peasant and rural working class lost their land and their dignity, and how the people that displaced them lost their innocence in war and found peace in this insignificant place. It is a journey through a shared landscape that can still be found and that has shaped the history of the valley and of the settlers who drifted here. For a thousand years this waste land, the common land upon which the village is built, held no value nor offered wealth to the the great landowners but in 1861 it was enclosed and everything changed in the village.

A full description of the development of this narrative can be found in the post Researching and Completing Assignment 5.

A selection of PDFs of the complete narrative are available to download:

Change in the Village 1 low res – Page by page PDF designed to be printed double sided

Change in the Village 1 spreads low res – The spreads

The photographs that make up this narrative can be found in Assignment 5 Images

The Spreads

Change-in-the-Village-1-spreads-1

Change-in-the-Village-1-spreads-2

Change-in-the-Village-1-spreads-3

Change-in-the-Village-1-spreads-4

Change-in-the-Village-1-spreads-5

Change-in-the-Village-1-spreads-6

Change-in-the-Village-1-spreads-7

Change-in-the-Village-1-spreads-8

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Assignment 5 Images

The following photographs were used in assignment 5. I have not included the individual images that make up Shared Landscapes as these were conceived as a typology and not relevant as individual images.

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Fig. 01 The Village Green 1/125 at f/10, ISO 800

Fig. 01 The Village Green 1/125 at f/10, ISO 800

Fig. 02 Squatter's Cottage - 1/160 at f/9, ISO 200

Fig. 02 Squatter’s Cottage – 1/160 at f/9, ISO 200

Fig. 03 The Common - 1/200 at f/16, ISO 200

Fig. 03 The Common – 1/200 at f/16, ISO 200

Fig. 04 Dene Lane - 1/100 at f/8, ISO 160

Fig. 04 Dene Lane – 1/100 at f/8, ISO 160

Fig. 05 The Boathouse Frensham Little Pond - 1/125 at f/14, ISO 200

Fig. 05 The Boathouse Frensham Little Pond – 1/125 at f/14, ISO 200

Fig. 06 2 Old Frensham Road - 1/60 at f/20, ISO 1000

Fig. 06 2 Old Frensham Road – 1/60 at f/20, ISO 1000

Fig. 07 2 Old Frensham Road 1/400 at f/8, ISO 400

Fig. 07 2 Old Frensham Road 1/400 at f/8, ISO 400

Fig. 08 2 Old Frensham Road - 1/500 at f/6.3, ISO 200

Fig. 08 2 Old Frensham Road – 1/500 at f/6.3, ISO 200

Fig. 09 Fred Grover's Cottage - 1/100 at f/9, ISO 1000

Fig. 09 Fred Grover’s Cottage – 1/100 at f/9, ISO 1000

Fig. 10 Steam Lane - 1/60 at f/10, ISO 1100

Fig. 10 Steam Lane – 1/60 at f/10, ISO 1100

Fig. 11 The Clumps - 1/160 at f/14, ISO 200

Fig. 11 The Clumps – 1/160 at f/14, ISO 200

Fig. 12 The Enclosed Common - 1/60 at f/13, ISO 800

Fig. 12 The Enclosed Common – 1/60 at f/13, ISO 800

Fig. 13 Camps in the Woods - 1/60 at F5.6, ISO 800

Fig. 13 Camps in the Woods – 1/60 at F5.6, ISO 800

Fig. 14 Hops - 1/250 at f/2.8, ISO100

Fig. 14 Hops – 1/250 at f/2.8, ISO100

Fig. 15 Vine Cottage - 1/100 at f/9, ISO 140

Fig. 15 Vine Cottage – 1/100 at f/9, ISO 140

Fig. 16 The Bourne School - 1/60 at f/22, ISO 200

Fig. 16 The Bourne School – 1/60 at f/22, ISO 200

Fig. 17 The Bourne School Gates - 1/640 at f/3.2, ISO 200

Fig. 17 The Bourne School Gates – 1/640 at f/3.2, ISO 200

Fig. 18 Old Lawnmower in Graveyard - 1/80 at f/10, ISO 400

Fig. 18 Old Lawnmower in Graveyard – 1/80 at f/10, ISO 400

Fig. 19 Farnham Grammar School - 1/20 at f/3.6, ISO 800

Fig. 19 Farnham Grammar School – 1/20 at f/3.6, ISO 800

Fig. 20 The Bourne Graveyard - 1/60 at f/11, ISO 900

Fig. 20 The Bourne Graveyard – 1/60 at f/11, ISO 900

Fig. 21 The Family Grave - 1/30 at f/14, ISO 800

Fig. 21 The Family Grave – 1/30 at f/14, ISO 800

Fig. 22 The Bourne Graveyard - 1/100 at f/16, ISO 560

Fig. 22 The Bourne Graveyard – 1/100 at f/16, ISO 560

Fig. 23 Cattle on The Common - 1/160 at f/16, ISO 200

Fig. 23 Cattle on The Common – 1/160 at f/16, ISO 200

Fig. 24 Shared Landscape 1

Fig. 24 Shared Landscape 1

Fig. 25 Shared Landscape 2

Fig. 25 Shared Landscape 2

 

Josef Koudelka and the Use of Captions in Wall

River Jordan & Red Sea from the Wilderness of Judea. Photograph by Norman Middlehurst 1944

River Jordan & Red Sea from the Wilderness of Judea. Photograph by Norman Middlehurst 1944

I cannot say at what point Koudelka decided on incorporating text into Wall. His other work has not used captions in the same way but in Wall they play a major role. Koudelka didn’t write the captions or the other blocks of text that are included within Wall, they were written by Ray Dolphin, a researcher and writer who has prepared several reports about the, so called, Separation Barrier, for the UN and who wrote Unmaking Palestine. Give his status as a leading and internationally recognised photographer we must assume that Koudelka sanctioned the book being designed in this way.

The captions are often factual. Where, how, when, and at times are quite neutral, for example the caption “Structures from the British Mandate (1922-48) and Jordanian era (1948-67) remain in the West Bank” accompanies a photograph of a derelict building. We are left to decide whether the building is from the British or Jordanian era so the caption is not acting as if it is part of a news story, it is not filling in detail or completing a story, it is not even explaining the original purpose of the structure. It is contextualising the photograph; we see a bleak landscape including a long security fence through the glassless window and damaged wall of a deserted building that we now know was built before the Israeli’s occupied this land. If we consider the gross amount of information on the page most of it is being communicated by the photograph and a small proportion comes from the caption but even when combined we are not presented with completeness. There are plenty of questions left unanswered, there is opportunity for interpretation and the audience can be drawn into the picture to consider small details and wonder how they impact the story and, neither the photograph nor the caption express a strong opinion.

However, the factual captions are frequently loaded with a political agenda. For example a photograph of another abandoned building, but this time the interior of a house, is captioned with “More than two hundred Syrian villages, including the old town of Queitra, were abandoned by their inhabitants in the 1967 Arab-Israeli War; many were later demolished by the Israeli authorities.”

Some captions express the opinions of third parties. “Most Israeli citizens attribute the lack of suicide bombings in Israel in recent years to the success of the wall in preventing infiltration from the West Bank.” We are not told in words whether Koudelka or Dolphin subscribe to this view, nor whether they believe it is justified. The accompanying photograph shows two lines of “defences”, the Wall at this point is large, dominant, ugly, medieval in texture and scale so we are left to make up our own mind as to whether this was the only or appropriate way to address, what was, a serious threat to the safety and well being of Israelis. The writer and photographer’s agenda is made reasonably clear by the choice of photograph. In other places we see the Wall as a fence or even as road blocks and this caption with those pictures would have suggested a more mild response to the threat. So, here we see the words and the pictures having a more equal relationship in terms of the amount of information or message being communicated.

And, some captions just express Dolphin’s opinion, even though it might be expressed in factual terms. “Thousands of olive tress in the West Bank have been cut down, uprooted or otherwise vandalised”. Take out the last two words and this is a factual statement, put them back and the text becomes subjective and opinionated.

To return to the question of why did the photographer want so many words in this presentation? Are his photographs not enough, would they not stand alone as a narrative of the Wall? Why deviate from the approach he used in his other work? Without the opportunity to question Koudelka or his editors there is no absolute answer to these questions but I sense that the answer lies in his history. Koudelka comes from a country that was held in thrall to the Russian empire, the USSR, he understands the sense of helplessness felt by Poles, Czechs, Hungarians, Tibetans, and many others that have been in recent times been or still are under the yoke of a militaristic and ruthless neighbour. It is likely that he saw many similarities in the relationship between the Israelis and the Palestinians and recognised in the Wall was a symbol of that domination much as the Berlin wall was a symbol of the East West divide. In the spirit of the engaged observer or concerned documentary photographer he wanted to communicate the strongest possible message and felt that his photographs alone were not enough. He adopted the fundamental principles described by Evans and added enough text to contextualise the pictures and to develop, in his audience, a depth of understanding that would emotionally and intellectually engage them.

If, as Karin Becker Ohm says, the role of the documentary photographer is “to bring the attention of the audience to the subject of his or her work and, in many cases, to pave the way for social change” then Koudelka appears to believe that we must not only see the Wall, often disturbingly beautiful in his dark tonal compositions, but fully understand its context so there is limited opportunity for his audience to miss his point. Wall is unambiguous statement and much enhanced by the text.

Sources

Books

Koudelka, Josef. (2014) Wall: Israeli and Palestinian Lanscape 2008 – 2012. New York: Aperture.

Revisiting Josef Koudelka’s Wall – in 1944

River Jordan 1944. Photograph by Norman Middlehurst

River Jordan 1944. Photograph by Norman Middlehurst

For assignment 5 I have been looking back through old family photographs to find pictures of the village in which I grew up. Whilst doing this I came across my father’s photos from his service with the RAF in North Africa from 1941 to 1944 and was struck by the coincidence that many of his shots from 70 years ago are of the same landmarks and in similar places to the landscapes in Josef koudelka’s Wall *(1) which I reviewed a few weeks ago. I was very moved by the bleak story Koudelka tells of the human and environmental damage caused by the building of what the Isreali government calls the “Separation Barrier”.

Someone will have composed a more authoritative before and after than I can achieve using the holiday snaps of a RAF corporal enjoying a few days of relaxation in what he called the Holy Land. Dad was a religious man and his choice of subjects portray his excitement in visiting the places from the Bible. Some have been printed 170mm by 110mm and these have scanned quite well but many are only 80mm by 60mm and these have lost definition in the scanning process. Many are surprisingly good, beautifully composed and carefully exposed, surprising because I don’t have any particular memories of him using a camera until he retired and purchased an SLR to take on post retirement trips abroad.

I wish I could show his and Koudelka’s photos side by side but instead I will do my best to describe the differences and leave it to any interested reader to seek out images from the Wall to complete the picture (Magnum Photography is a useful source). Wherever possible I have scanned in my Father’s photos with the hand written descriptions from the pages of his album as these form part of the story. Overall they show a rural world that had changed little since Biblical times and I’m quite certain that he was intentionally highlighting this point.

Rachel's Tomb 1944 - Photograph by Norman Middlehurst

Rachel’s Tomb 1944 – Photograph by Norman Middlehurst

Rachel’s Tomb was the photo that started off this chain of thought. This is said to be the third holiest site for Jewish people and is situated between Jerusalem and Bethlehem. The structure in the above photograph was build over the tomb around 1620 by the Ottomans.  It features twice in Koudelka’s series and in neither case can you see the above structure, I believe it still exists but it has been completely enclosed by a fortress, guard towers, soldiers and barbed wire. In Koudelka’s photos we see the huge concrete walls that have been diverted as a salient into Bethlehem to surround the tomb.

River Jordan & Red Sea from the Wilderness of Judea. Photograph by Norman Middlehurst 1944

River Jordan & Red Sea from the Wilderness of Judea. Photograph by Norman Middlehurst 1944

River Jordan Fishermen 1944. Photograph by Norman Middlehurst

River Jordan Fishermen 1944. Photograph by Norman Middlehurst

Koudelka tells us that “most of the Jordan valley and Dead Sea is designated as “Area C” and is reserved for the use of the Israeli military.” He shows derelict buildings on the shores of the sea behind a wire fence with a tank track in the foreground.

Bethlehem From the Shepard's Field 1944. Photograph by Norman Middlehurst

Bethlehem From the Shepard’s Field 1944. Photograph by Norman Middlehurst

Cana of Galilee 1944. Photograph by Norman Middlehurst

Cana of Galilee 1944. Photograph by Norman Middlehurst

Koudelka says “Increasingly Palestinian farmers can only access their farmland on the de facto Israeli side of the wall with special Israeli issued ” visitor permits”.

 

The Good Samaritan Inn 1944. Photograph by Norman Middlehurst

The Good Samaritan Inn 1944. Photograph by Norman Middlehurst

The Good Samaritan Inn is 12 miles east of Jerusalem on the road to Jericho. Koudelka’s photo of Nabi Musa which the Arabs believe to be the tomb of Moses is just 6 miles further East. The comparative features are the absence above of what appear to be tank tracks and the barren landscape in Koudelka’s photograph. Whilst not mentioned in my father’s caption I am intrigued by the Arab man in the foreground who appears to be sighting a rifle.

Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives 1944. Photograph by Norman Middlehurst

Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives 1944. Photograph by Norman Middlehurst

I can’t see the walls of Jerusalem in Koudelka’s photographs but there is an interesting contrast above with his ariel shot of East Jerusalem. A rural landscape outside a medieval city is replaced by urban sprawl and a modern concrete defensive wall separating low rise Palestinian housing from high-rise Jerusalem.

The Toc "H" lancers Outside the Golden Gate 1944. Unknown Photographer.

The Toc “H” lancers Inside the Golden Gate 1944. Unknown Photographer.

The final photo I have chosen speaks of gentler times. I think this is my Father’s unit enjoying their leave in Jerusalem. Dad is the 4th military man from the right in his RAF cap.

Sources

Books

(1) Koudelka, Josef. (2013) Wall: Israeli and Palestinian Landscape 2008 – 2012. New York: Aperture

 

Stephen Shore – From Galilee to the Negev

Israel 1/80 at f/9, ISO 100

Israel 1/80 at f/9, ISO 100

This Place

In 2006 Frédéric Brenner *(1) launched This Place, a photographic project involving 12, internationally renowned photographers to document a single small place – Isreal. It has been compared with the Mission Heliographique which set out to record France in 1851 and it is undoubtably one of the most ambitious documentaries ever undertaken by still photographers. For four years between 2009 and 2012 this group of photographers, mostly operated independently of each other, compiled very personal accounts of this troubled land. Brenner’s own book, An Archeology of Fear and Desire *(2) has been published by MACK and extracts can be found in several places including his own website at FredericBrenner.com *(1)

In an interview with the NY Times *(7) Brenner explains that he was partly motivated by the binary way in which Israel is portrayed, “for and against, victim and perpetrator” and that this had led to a lack of complexity when describing the place. The tone for This Place is best summarised by another Frédéric Brenner quotation from the New York Times article *(7):

“I did not bring people here to see the land of milk and honey. I brought them here to see the land that devours its inhabitants.”

As well as Brenner the photographers include Josef Koudelka, Jungjin Lee, Stephen Shore, Rosalind Solomon, Thomas Struth, Fazal Sheikh, Wendy Ewald, Nick Waplington, Martin Kollar, Gilles Peress, and Jeff Wall.

Charlotte Cotton is the curator of the This Place Exhibition opening in Prague and touring to Israel and the USA  but unfortunately not to the UK. Speaking of the exhibition she says  “Each artist has created a profound and personal narration of Israel and the West Bank, that, collectively, act as a series of guides, leading the viewer into a deeper identification with the complexities and conflicts of the Holy Land.” *(3) and this summarises my reaction to From Galilee to Negev *(9), I do feel I have been led towards a deeper understanding.

From Galilee to the Negev

I am from a generation of Englishmen that was taught Bible stories alongside history and geography as entirely factual subjects. Looking back it is obvious that we were taught history by people born during the days of Empire, we used atlases that still showed great swaths of the world coloured pink and Bible stories were so intertwined with the rest of our early education that, for many years, I though a “green hill outside a city wall” was where they were, then, building Guildford Cathedral.

Many of us have therefore grown up with a seemingly intimate knowledge of a tiny and confusing country clinging to the edge of the African continent to such an extent that many children would more readily  recognise the tribal names of the Philistines or the Samaritans than the Caledones or the Atrebates. My father finished the last war in Palestine and told stories of a frightening but beautiful place and I have spent a lot of time in Tel Aviv working alongside and negotiating with Israelis, yet I have no real sense of the place because when we look at Israel and the West Bank it is through a screen of attention-grabbing pictures of conflict and confrontation, of argument and stubbornness, of failed negotiations and broken promises since the 1940s until the six day war and right up to, literally, the present day, today. Occasionally something reveals itself behind the screen but, even then, it is often too distorted and out of focus for us to grasp its meaning.

Stephen Shore sets out, and to an extent manages, to push a corner of that screen aside and reveal a glimpse, nothing more, of this ancient land and its modern people. In an interview with ASX:TV *(4) he says that he is trying to “come to terms with what is essential about a place that’s visually accessible” but that he recognised that this was a more charged subject matter than he was used to. The challenge that Shore had was to avoid making a political statement but, in practice, this is one of the most politicised  places on the planet and Shore’s idiosyncratic style of recording the banal was always going to result in photographs that are charged with politics. Steve Sabella *(5), one of the essayists, speaks to this point when he says that his reading of the photographs may not necessarily originate from the image itself but what it might trigger him to think about. The political message we choose to take from his pictures will vary depending, as ever, on our background, education, faith (or lack of it), age, politics and all the other contextual baggage the viewer always brings to a photograph but, regardless of how they interpret the images many people will feel changed by this book.

Shore’s photographs are punctuated by essays from various writers and artists who have each selected a single image to discuss and these essays are often the key to understanding parts of the series. Shore tells us that a lot of the photographs, if not all of them, have a sub-text but without the essays few viewers would find more than a handful of the sub-texts and even then many of the hidden meanings remain hidden. There is more clarity in the overall structural theme which starts by putting Israel into the context of its ancient history before introducing the  vast and untamed wilderness of the land, closing in to show man’s impact on the landscape, moving closer still to see the ugly urbanisation and then on to investigating ordinary people and the trivia of their ordinary lives. Because the book is ultimately a travelogue that spans the length and breath of this sliver of a country this sequence is generally repeated as Shore investigates each of the four main regions.

Archeology plays such a leading role in this book that I intend to base much much of this essay on how Shore deals with and uses that subject. The first set of plates, which set the scene for the whole collection, reminded me of the Walter Benjamin question  “Will not the caption become the most important part of the photograph?”. Shore has included part of a set of his photographs from 1994 of a dig at Ashqelon, a site close to the coast,  just north of Gaza and south of Tel Aviv. They are simple photos, recordings of pottery, walls, trenches and a well but, for each, he has included a caption taken from the notes written on the back of each photograph by the professor supervising the dig. These captions lead us from the Canaanite Kings to Nebuchadnezzar, from the remains of monumental buildings to water supplies, from simple household utensils to the destruction of ancient city walls. We are pulled back to 1994 to be reminded that this single place, a spot on the map, has been settled and fought over for at least four thousand years. It is representative of a land that has seen occupation by the Canaanites, Philistines, Babylonians, Amorites, Assyrians, Persians, Israelites, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Mamlukes, Ottomans, Palestinians, British and Israelis and probably many others. The photographs are a metaphor for the substance of the book, monumental places and monumental events have ordinary people living ordinary lives inside.

Archeology is re-introduced to the plot with a photograph of an unusual poster found in an Ultra-Orthodox neighbourhood of Jerusalem. The poster shows archeologists at work but labels them as “grave robbers” and orthodox jews protesting and the reaction of the police who are labeled as “butchers”. The sub-text, and the use of archaeology as a subject of both text and images, is that this science that,by excavating ancient Israelite settlements, was used as part of the justification for the creation of the state has become an example of the deep divides that exist within the Jewish population. The Ultra-Orthodox community believe in physical reincarnation, hence the protests captured on the poster, and as their political power is in the ascendency archeology is being increasingly marginalised and important sites vandalised. A metaphor within a metaphor perhaps but the one science that can offer an unambiguous picture of history, uncoloured by religious myth or the histories written by the victors is being suppressed.

One of the more powerful photographs in the book is of a small, ugly and complex house in an Arab village. As a house it is only remarkable for its muddled architecture and apparantly unplanned development but as a piece of living archaeology it is a history book describing two hundred years of modifications that have been made to an old, stone, Arab house by successive generations of inhabitants. We cannot know whether it is the same family that have added and generally not quite finished each phase of development or whether people have come and gone on this site but which ever is the case, this humble home for ordinary people, was probably first built during the days of the Ottoman Empire and as the great events of history have swirled  around it successive occupants have added a bit here and adapted a bit there, sometimes following the latest fashions and sometimes just being practical. Analog television came, better aerials arrived, satellite took over and better, bigger dishes became available but all these generations of equipment for watching the news and soaps and sport have been left up there on the roof, a museum exhibit of broadcasting. Shore says that “life there includes the conflict but it is far more than the conflict” and this little house shows how wave after wave of ordinary people have just got on with their lives by adding another bedroom or putting in a new window or getting a better signal to watch the football.

Everywhere is shaped by its history, the British Isles has a few communities that feel driven to fight yesterday’s wars but Galilee to Negrev describes a place that is not just shaped but shackled by the multiple histories of different groups. One group’s big history is another group’s minor event  and each group is so self absorbed in the distress of their own history that they forget the recent history of their feuding neighbour. There is a set of four aerial photographs of ruins, archaeological sites would be the obvious thought, taken to the South West of Tel Aviv. It seems unlikely that Shore knew what he was photographing from the low flying helicopter he was travelling in and it appears that the Isreali Government, who were hosting the trip, had forgotten what a select group of foreign dignitaries and journalists were being flown over. Eyal Weizman, another of Shore’s essayists choses one of these photos not just to write about but to investigate. He explains his path of research and concludes that these ruins are not Greek or Roman but the remains of a Palestinian village forcibly cleared by the Israelis when they took possession of this land in the late 1940s.

Perhaps Shore has focussed on archeology as emblematic of a region steeped in ancient history as a way of reminding the viewer that nothing lasts for ever but that the successive occupants of this land have left their mark and are even now leaving their mark. In the valley of Zin he presents eleven small images of found objects, pieces of modern debris that might last long enough in the dessert to be excavated in another age and this style of presentation sets the tone for the last sections of the book with a close-up investigation of Shivta, the ruined Nabatean city in the Negev. also presented as a series of small prints. Many are of ordinary everyday things, a mill stone, perhaps used to make olive oil, a rain gutter, storage pits and door frames but this develops into pieces of more monumental architecture and the book feels as if it has turned full circle to show that ordinary people lived here as part of great civilisations but now they are lost and scattered like the stones of their buildings.

The Photography

This book is vast, over 200 plates, and is a slow book. It has taken me several evenings to work my way thought it, going back and forth as new pieces of information become available allowing a better understanding of an earlier image.

The essays make compelling reading and I was steadily drawn into the narrative. However, this level of engagement with Shore’s subject was a pleasant surprise. I had ordered Galilee to Negev because it was Shore’s latest major publication and because it was about 40 years on from Uncommon Places which I reviewed some months ago. I was intrigued to find out how much his style has changed and whether he saw the world differently after all this time. This is undoubtably an old man’s topic, young people are (quite rightly) interested in now, not then and certainly nothing bores the young more quickly that a comparison between now and then.

The continuity in Shore’s style is quite remarkable, most of the landscapes are still taken with an 8 x10 camera although he says he fell in love with the digital camera he used for the shots of daily life.  The overall presentation of the books are very similar and it would be possible to swap a few of the plates between the publications without them appearing too out of place. There is still the occasional meal with humous replacing pancakes but note the regional flavour of these meals, the landscapes are mostly quite clearly Israel or middle America but he still offers pale skies and angles that exaggerate the scale of open spaces. He still introduces the viewer to the people he meets along the way and the street scenes in Galilee to Negev are composed in the same style as Uncommon Places.

We know that, between Uncommon Places and Galilee Stephen Shore has experimented with digital books, new technologies and different ways of presenting his images so it is interesting that he has returned to his best known and most iconic style when asked to join this project. I interpret this as an indication of the level of respect that he had for the concept and the importance he placed on obtaining the most compelling result possible. This was not a place for experimentation so he dusted off his 8 x 10 and brought that peculiar Stephen Shore eye to a tormented but very special place.

Sources

Books

(9) Shore, Stephen. (2014) From Galilee to Negev. New York: Phaidon.

(2) Brenner, Frédéric. (2014) An Archeology of Fear and Desire. Mack Books – http://www.mackbooks.co.uk/books/1024-An-Archeology-of-Fear-and-Desire.html

Internet

BJB On-Line – Stephen Shore’s New Book – http://www.bjp-online.com/2014/05/stephen-shores-new-book/

(1) Brenner, Frédéric. Frédéric Brenner Official Web-Site – http://www.fredericbrenner.com/archeology-of-fear-and-desire/2xv80i99p9auggl3mchke43r82w3le

Brenner, Frédéric. Frédéric Brenner Facebook Page – https://www.facebook.com/fredericbrennerphotographer/timeline

New York Times – Lens Blog – Josef Koudelka: Formed by the World – http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/11/19/josef-koudelka-formed-by-the-world/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0

The Times of Israel – Portraits of a Many Layered Country – http://www.timesofisrael.com/portraits-of-a-many-layered-country/

(3) Time Lightbox. Picturing the Holy Land: 12 Photographers Chart a Region’s Complexities. – http://lightbox.time.com/2014/04/16/west-bank-israel-photos/#1

(4) ASX:TV. Stephen Shore in Conversation (2014) – http://www.americansuburbx.com/2014/05/asx-tv-stephen-shore-in-conversation-2014.html

(5) Sabella, Steve. Steve Sabella Official Website – http://stevesabella.com

(6) Goldsmiths University of London – Eyal Weizman – http://www.gold.ac.uk/visual-cultures/w-eizman/

(7) New York Times – Top Photographers Try Looking at Israel From New Angles – http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/15/world/middleeast/photography-project-seeks-new-angles-on-israel.html?_r=2&

(8) Photo-Eye Blog – Interview: Stephen Shore on a New York Minute and From Galilee to the Negev – http://blog.photoeye.com/2014/03/interview-stephen-shore-on-new-york.html

Exercise 34 Outdoors at Night

A variety of night time and available light photographs taken in December 2014 to fulfil this exercise.

Fig 02 Falmouth Harbour, Antigua, December 2014 - 62 seconds at f/22 with Big Stopper (10 stop)  filter

Fig 01 Falmouth Harbour, Antigua, December 2014 – 62 seconds at f/22, ISO 100 with Big Stopper (10 stop) filter

Fig 01 Falmouth Harbour, Antigua December 2014 - 30 seconds at F/22, ISO 100

Fig 02 Falmouth Harbour, Antigua, December 2014 – 30 seconds at f/22, ISO 100

Fig 03 Falmouth Harbour, Antigua, December 2014 - 60 seconds at f/11, ISO 100

Fig 03 Falmouth Harbour, Antigua, December 2014 – 60 seconds at f/11, ISO 100

 

Exercise 32 Cloudy Weather and Rain

This is a multi part exercise. In part one we are asked to look at how exposure changes between sunlight and shadow caused by cloud. the following series of photographs show this change in a landscape.

Fig 01 Clouded Over - 1/125 at f14, - .67 stops, ISO 100

Fig 01 Cloud – 1/125 at f14, – .67 stops, ISO 100

Fig.02 Sun Breaking Through - 1/160 at f/14, -.67 stops, ISO 100

Fig.02 Sun Breaking Through – 1/160 at f/14, -.67 stops, ISO 100

Fig. 03 Sun - 1/200 at f14, -.67 stops, ISO 100

Fig. 03 Sun – 1/200 at f14, -.67 stops, ISO 100

Fig. 04 Shade 5 hours later - 1/60 at f/16, -.67 stops, ISO 110

Fig. 04 Shade 5 hours later – 1/60 at f/16, -.67 stops, ISO 110

This part of the exercise shows that cloud cover, even on a sunny day, significantly impacts exposure. There is a 2 stop difference between the same scene lit with full sun and when the sun is covered by cloud. There is a further 3 stop difference between shade at 11 am and shade at 5 pm. The dark marks in the sky in fig. 04 are swallows.

The third part of the exercise asks us to take photographs in the rain.

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Fig. 06 Rain in the Distance  1/125 at f/16, ISO 160

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Fig. 07 Rain in the Distance 1/1600 at f/5.6, ISO 100

Fig. 08 Raining 1/1000 at f/5.6, ISO 1600

Fig. 08 Raining 1/1000 at f/5.6, ISO 1600

Fig. 09 Raining 1/1000 at f/5.6, ISO 4000

Fig. 09 Raining 1/1000 at f/5.6, ISO 4000

Fig. 09 Raining 1/1000 at f/4.5, ISO 900

Fig. 10 Raining 1/1000 at f/4.5, ISO 900

Fig. 05 1/125 at f/8, ISO 720

Fig. 11 Puddles After Rain 1/125 at f/8, ISO 720

Fig. 05 1/125 at f/8, ISO 400

Fig. 12 Puddles After Rain 1/125 at f/8, ISO 400

Fig. 13 Umbrellas 1/125 at f/9, ISO 450

Fig. 13 Umbrellas 1/125 at f/9, ISO 450

The second part of the exercise is pending a dull day.