Tag Archives: Stephen Shore

Victor Burgin and Appropriations- Post Assignment 3 Research

Citta S'Angelo Fashion Village - 1/125 at f/11, ISO 800

Fig. 01 Citta S’Angelo Fashion Village – 1/125 at f/11, ISO 800

As part of the feedback on assignment 3, The Reality and Illusion of Mannequins, my tutor suggested I look at the work of Victor Burgin *(1), a British conceptual artist who extensively explored the relationship between the apparent and implicit meaning of images in the 1970s.

In his lengthy paper on the wider subject of Writing with Images, George Dillon *(2) dedicates a chapter to the subject of “Appropriations”, a chapter in which Victor Burgin has a leading role. According to Dillon appropriation is the idea of placing an object or an image in a context with which it is not normally associated intending to unsettle our normal expectations and lines of interpretation. The concept has existed in modern art for at least 100 years and Dillon points to Marcel Duchamp’s famous sculpture, “Fountain” from 1917 , a piece of art created by placing a standard urinal on its side and signing it “R.Mutt 1917”. According to The Tate’s description of their replica of this work *(3), Duchamp chose an ordinary everyday object and placed it into a different context that changed our view of it. He is believed to have said that he had “created a new thought for that object.”

This act and the thought behind it would resonate with many photographers, especially those looking to follow, in some way, in the footsteps of the American colourists. The idea that art is created by providing a different perspective on an ordinary thing is at the heart of the work of a wide spectrum of modern artists in different mediums. Anna Fox at her recent talk to OCA students told us to “record something to give it significance” an idea that has helped me understand the work of many contemporary photographers and something that I see as a driving force behind the work of Shore and Eggelston (and of course Fox herself).

Victor Burgin took the idea of appropriations in a different direction. He is a man of strong political beliefs and has used photography to comment on a wide range of subjects including consumerism, the imbalance of wealth distribution, racism, the role of the male in modern society and unobtainable aspirations. The later being one of the drivers behind The Reality and Illusion of Mannequins. His work in this area falls into two categories, opposites, or perhaps more accurately two sides of the same coin.

Victor-Burgin-Life-Demands-a-little-Give-and-Take-2014-06-15_15-24-30WRIn “Life Demands a Little Give and Take” (1974) Burgin uses a photograph of a bus queue as his base photograph and then adds a text taken from the fashion world.

The text is typical of the way fashion houses describe themselves and their products.

“…… the tones are pale, delicate. These are the classic Mayfair colours. White naturally takes pride of place ……. very much for the pampered lady dressed for a romantic evening with every element pale and perfect.”

Burgin positions text from a fashion magazine alongside a picture of ordinary people at a bus queue with a black women leading out of the text. The point would seem to be that this fashion house does not have this person in mind when they wrote the text, their target market might be a “pale” white women of a certain status and class  who is unlikely to be queuing for a bus in a multi-cultural area.

This idea resonates with me for a number of reasons. Firstly, the thought that developed during the research for Mannequins was that fashion houses’ literature and websites use an unique style of language. It is flowery, pompous, self indulgent, egotistical and often, in their desire to fit all the desired trigger words into the same sentence, verging on unintelligible.

“Exclusive, glamorous, the most precious as goddess’ require” – Versace

“Its iconography was further defined by the bold and dramatic advertising portraying glamorous but strong women.” – Jimmy Chou

“An universe of contradictions and endless collaboration, noble causes and base temptations” – Prada

Beyond the attraction of using their words for satire or irony there is also a sense that the fashionistas live in a protected bubble inside the glitz of Milan, London, New York and Tokyo but a world that is detached from both the reality of their supply chain and the consumers of fast fashion. When they do talk about the environmental and social issues caused by their policies it is often patronising and condescending and with limited reference to how they intend to change those policies. The stance of Stella McCartney that I used in Mannequins is typical.

“We try to use organic fabrics and low impact dyes but we won’t do so unless we can achieve a high quality product” – Stella McCartney unintentionally explaining why only 1% of all the cotton produced in the world is fair trade and organic *(5).

Dillon quotes Jefferson Hunter *(4) as describing Burgin’s work at this point in his career as “smug texts and truth telling pictures” and this appears to be the perfect summary. His work is difficult to track down on line but Dillon tells us that he created many images using pictures of the everyday juxtaposed with language from fashion, property developers and estate agents.

The interesting facet of “Life Demands a Little Give and Take” is that, in isolation, neither the picture nor the text would communicate Burgin’s message; it is only by combining them that the overall image works. Later Burgin was to reverse the formula to create the piece of work that my tutor originally suggested I looked at.

2014-06-15_16-46-53What does possession mean to you? uses a fashion advert-like picture of an embracing couple dressed in white in the centre of a black poster.

Instead of an everyday picture juxtaposed with an unrelated piece of text that, when seen together, provides a meaning Burgin uses a studio style image combined with language that, whilst politically motivated, is suggested by Dillon to be abstract, theoretical, dogmatic and self righteous. This is clearly a complicated issue and as the viewer we can only read the message we think we see or, perhaps, want to see.

Above the picture the artist asks what possession means and below he makes the simple statement that 7% of our population own 84% of our wealth. This is a remarkably clever piece of work on several levels. The models look straight out of a fashion campaign, their style of dress suggests wealth  and their body language might infer possession.

The bottom half of the picture makes a straight political or social comment which is a quote from The Feminist magazine. My reading of the overall images is that an advertising campaign using such a picture would be targeted at the 7%. Possession was created as a poster for the Arts Council to promote an exhibition of contemporary artists in Newcastle and 200 copies were pasted up around the city. There is an intriguing side note in Dillon’s paper about a survey that was carried out at the time to find out how people seeing the poster interpreted the message. It was found that few passersby remembered the poster let alone understood the message. Dillon puts forward the view that this was because the picture and text were so perfectly integrated people saw a fashion poster not a political or artistic statement. Another view might be that this lack of understanding is connected to the context of the image so visitors to an art gallery, expecting there to be an artistic message, would read this poster quite differently from a passerby expecting to see an advertisement.

In these examples Burgin is using diametrically opposed text and pictures to communicate his message which is an approach used by other artists such as Anna Fox in Workstations *(8) where she uses her photographs of office life in the 80s alongside the smug management speak of business literature. I followed Fox’s approach in Mannequins and have, out of interest, tried Burgin’s approach in fig. 01 above.

The two examples of Burgin’s work that I have discussed are part of a larger body of work carried out between 1976 and 1978. When researching “What does possession mean to you?” i found the work of Scott Benzel *(6). He has taken Burgin’s original poster and reversed the reversal by substituting the glamorous couple with a still from a “possession” genre horror film. This “copy” of Burgin’s work is interesting because the message, which as I have already mentioned was not readily understood in its original form, has become more confused in the copy. It depicts a cowering women which works strongly with the “what does possession mean to you?” banner potentially highlighting domestic violence or the perception that women can be owned but I, for one, fail to understand the link with “7% of our population own 84% of our wealth”. It is always informative to see chains of influences that allow the student to trace ideas both backwards and forwards from a single artist and reminds me of my favourite quote from Steal Like and Artist by Austin Kleon *(7).

” Everything that needs to be said has already been said. But, since no one was listening, everything must be said again.” – André Gide.

Another example of images out of context being difficult to interpret might be The United Colours of Benneton posters that were used after 1989 when they became the first fashion house to eliminate pictures of their product from their advertising. It strikes me that this campaign might also be in flunked by Burgin. Like “Possession” these were slick, professionally produced advertisements that used photos and text to communicate a message. This could be considered as a different form of appropriation in that Benneton appropriated social and political issues to promote their name and did this in such a sophisticated manner that, Serra Tinic *(9), a sociology professor at the University of Alberta, believes the original issues lost their significance by being transformed into advertised commodities. Ms. Tinic provides a thoughtful analysis, which can be found here, of the issues surrounding Benneton’s United Colors campaign and the mixed reactions it has received  but, there is also a photography subject in play partly because a number of their posters evoke  Burgin’s Possesions.

2014-06-15_18-04-20This poster shows black and white men handcuffed together and is a powerful image taken by the Italian photographer Oliviero Toscani *(10).

As well as being a photographer in his own right Toscani is the art director behind the Benneton campaign and according to CNN *(11) the man behind the brand’s rapid rise to prominence.

If we put the appropriation of social issues to one side I could argue that there is no appropriation in the photographic sense of the word because the text and picture are from the same source, an advertising agency and the diversity of the sources seem to be an important aspect of the technique. However, because we approach this poster with the knowledge that Toscani and Benneton make political statements with their posters we read the image as being a political or social statement and “get the message”; without the Benneton logo the image is weakened and its message becomes less clear. I therefore believe that, in effect, there is another form of appropriation in play because as soon as the art director dragged the Benetton logo onto this photograph he changed the meaning of the image by linking it to Benneton’s history of using social political issues.

I am grateful that I was directed towards the work of Victor Burgin, an artist I doubt I would have found without my tutor’s help. He was also a difficult man to research as, despite his status as an artist, a photographer and an educator his work is not easily found on-line. I wanted my assignment 3, The Reality and Illusion of Mannequins, to be considered in the light of my research into Anna Fox’s Workstations but it has been a very useful exercise to also be able to look at what I was trying to do in the context of Victor Burgin’s work.

It has been equally helpful to delve deeper into the subject of reading images and how the idea of bringing text and pictures together can work to make or underline a message.

 

Sources

Books

*(4) Hunter, Jefferson. Image and Word. Harvard University Press, 1989

*(7) Kleon, Austin. (2012) Steal Like an Artist: 10 things nobody told you about being creative. New York: Workman Publishing Company

*(8) Fox, Anna (1988) Workstations. Cameraworks

Internet

*(1) The Tate. Victor Burgin. http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/victor-burgin-834

*(2) Dillon, George L. (2003) Writing with Images: Toward a Semiotics of the Web http://courses.washington.edu/hypertxt/cgi-bin/book/wordsinimages/appropriations.html

*(3) The Tate. Marcel Duchamp : Fountain. http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/duchamp-fountain-t07573

*(5) People Tree. Emma Watson. http://www.peopletree.co.uk/about-us/collaborations/emma-watson

*(6) Human Resources. Scott Benzel: What does possession mean to you? http://humanresourcesla.com/scott-benzel-and-what-does-pos/

*(9) Tinic, Serra A. United Colors and Untied Meanings: Benetton and the Commodification of Social Issues. http://homes.ieu.edu.tr/~ykaptan/MCS570/Serra%20Tinic%20Benetton.pdf

*(10) Toscani, Oliviera. Oliviero Toscani Studio. http://www.olivierotoscanistudio.com/it/biografia.htm

*(11) CNN. Oliviero Toscani: ‘There are no shocking pictures, only shocking reality’ http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/europe/08/13/oliviero.toscani/index.html

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Assignment 3 Tutor Feedback

Overall Comments

This was one of the strongest and most visually interesting submissions I have seen for this assignment to date ! It was a really interesting themed body of work.

The issues raised in the previous report are as follows:

You are responding very well to the feedback offered in my opinion and methodically address any issues as they are raised. The structure of your assignment submissions are very well organized and should benefit you during assessment.

Feedback on assignment

This assignment specifically looks at the use of colour and different colour use in deliberate relationships. [IE: Complementary / Similar / Contrasting etc]

The assignment works very well from start to finish and not only provides evidence of visual problem solving, but does it in an interesting manner. The work just caught my attention from the outset …. Which is so refreshing ! Not only was the work really visually interesting to look at, but it was clearly grounded in appropriate and relevant research (Anna Fox etc).

“the shop mannequin sees endless activity that passes for human existence” British Film Council

Fig. 03 “the shop mannequin sees endless activity that passes for human existence”
British Film Council

As a series the images work well together – Fig 03 and Fig 14 are really well observed and use both colour and the randomness of reflection to great advantage. The first shot almost has a relationship between the glance of the model to the couple walking by with the pink umbrella … which is a really interesting shot, that also deals with the colour relationship at its heart.

Fig. 14 “unique mix of innovative audacity and legendary Italian quailty” Gucci

Fig. 14 “unique mix of innovative audacity and legendary Italian quailty”
Gucci

Then the use of DoF within Fig 14 was excellent, with so many layers being explored within the plane … the model actually looks like she is moving out through the glass shop front.

Fig. 15 “available in male, female or child sizes and any skin colour” Red Beau Mannequins

Fig. 15 “available in male, female or child sizes and any skin colour”
Red Beau Mannequins

I also liked Fig 15, where the child is almost looking down from the reflected roof top. It looks like both the window contents and the integral reflection have both been carefully considered here in relation to interplay, which I think is why the work is so strong.

In addition to the below, I’d like you to take a look at the work of Victor Burgin  (see follow up work here)…. And in particular his series in the mid 1970’s ‘what does possession mean to you?’ – I think you might be interested in this work in relation to this recent assignment submission. Also take a look at the most recent publication by Jason Evans called NYLPT … which has been created using double exposure.

http://www.mackbooks.co.uk/books/47-NYLPT.html

Learning Logs or Blogs/Critical essays

The blog is really well structured and contains everything you would expect to see from a student studying at this level. It is easy to navigate and has been posted on regularly. Excellent work Steve. 

Suggested reading/viewing

Penn, I.2001:Still Life. London. Thames & Hudson. ISBN-13:978-0500542484 (see follow up work here and here)

Weston, E.1999: Edward Weston (Photographic Study). London. Taschen ISBN-13: 978-3822871805 (here and here)

Pointers for the next assignment

As you are already aware, it is important to continue to read around these practitioners as they will have an ongoing relevance to your studies at this level. In terms of your next assignment, I would suggest looking at the work of both Edward Weston and Irving Penn in specific relation to lighting an object and still life experimentation. [See Suggested Reading] I’m hoping you can also attend some more exhibitions and comment on this within your blog.

My Response

It was obviously pleasing to receive good feedback on assignment 3 and something of a relief as I know that the final submission had drifted away from some aspects of the requirements. There were a number of attributes of these images that I had worked hard to develop and it is especially pleasing that I managed to communicate these ideas to my tutor through the pictures.

Beyond the comments on assignment 3 there are some very helpful pointers to artists who might provide inspiration for assignment 4. Clearly the feedback on my work is very important but at the previous two feedback points my tutor has pointed me in the direction of specific artists or movements that have shaped the next phase of my study.

I will investigate Victor Burgin and Jason Evans in the context of assignment 3, I have taken a brief look at Jason Evan’s book and at the images I can find from Victor Burgin’s “what does possession mean to you?” and it is very clear why my tutor thought I might find these interesting. I suspect that both these works will be quite difficult to track down on line but I sense that it will be worthwhile.

I have searched the normal on-line second hand books shops and have Irving Penn’s “Still Life” and Edward Weston “Photographic Study” winging their way to me. I have also tracked down a collection of Bill Brandt’s photographs following an email conversation with my tutor today.

In addition to these three and for my own satisfaction I also want to finish studying Stephen Shore’s “From Galilee to the Nagrev” which I have had for a couple of weeks now. I am especially interested in seeing how his work has changed and developed since “Uncommon Places”. I was very affected by Austin Kleon’s brilliant little book “Steal Like an Artist” and have taken to heart his point that you need to study your chosen artist sources in depth if you are to reap the full benefit. I feel that this is a very relevant point at this stage when I am embarking on looking at a further three practitioners, I feel it is equally important to keep studying Shore and Parr (who are the two that have given me the most inspiration so far) so the next phase will be about maintaining an appropriate balance between new and established study paths.

My tutor makes a good point about exhibitions, I have only been to one since starting the course and this is clearly a poor effort. I have been invited to the Cecil Beaton exhibition currently taking place in Salisbury and loaded Time Out to my iPad today in an attempt to find some exciting contemporary artist on show in London.

Reading Photographs

 

NK1_1781Reading Photographs, an introduction to the theory and meaning of images (1) is a helpful primer introducing a wide range of subjects from semiotics to ethics. Overall I found it interesting and it stimulated several chains of thought that have helped me identify new paths of research.  It is written for students of photography by Richard Salkeld, a senior lecturer in the History and Theory of Art and Photography at the University of Gloucestershire and needs to be approached in that context. Slakeld presents each subject in the form of a short essay, occasionally accompanied by a case study. Whilst the case studies are usually interesting and often introduced me to the work of practitioners I had not previously known they are accompanied by exam-type questions for the reader that seem out of place in the overall structure of the book. If the subject is in any way contentious or open to debate Slakeld offers both sides of the argument but in doing so without offering us his own opinion the book lacks any critical bite.

The essays that most caught my attention were connected to the question of the degree to which a photograph can be read in isolation of its context. Not surprisingly this is a recurring theme throughout the book.  Initially touching on Walter Benjamin’s idea of the “The Optical Unconscious” which says that our visual knowledge base once comprised of things that we saw in person but the advent of the camera has dramatically increased our number of visual sources and this has created a background of visual memories that we subconsciously take into account when we look at photographs.

Benjamin documented this idea in 1931 at a time when the ordinary person’s life was far less impacted by the visual image than it is today, in fact large numbers of people, even in the UK, would have seen few images outside of a few family photos, religious imagery, advertising or the cinema. In 1931 a comparatively small percentage of a person’s visual memories would have been acquired second hand. Today, in the developed world, we are constantly surrounded by moving and still images and a high percentage of our visual memories are memories of those images, there is an argument that even when we “we were there” the memory of a photograph is often stronger than our direct memory of the actual event or person. We often remember photographs of family and friends rather than recalling a direct visual memory.

Much later in the book Slakeld presents the work of Marc Garanger (2) who was a conscripted French soldier  tasked with photographing Algerian women for their identity cards during the Algerian crisis. He took two thousand photographs in ten days (2). Each women is photographed in a nearly identical manner, full face and upper body, straight on. Garanger later said that he “saw that I could use what I was forced to do, and have the pictures tell the opposite of what the authorities wanted them to tell”  and he has suggested that the pictures speak for themselves but Salkeld asks whether this is really the case. He includes five of these photographs in his book and, with a reasonable amount of general knowledge, it is possible to read some of the clues. The women are not Caucasian, the jewellery on one appears to be North African, none of the expressions are relaxed and there is a tension about them. Ultimately we have read very little from the images.

If we are told that the photographs were taken by a French soldier in Algeria in 1960 we can begin to gain a fuller understanding because we can add previous knowledge to our reading. We bring a wide range of known subjects to the viewing:- colonialism, the relationship between the occupier and the occupied, the relationship between a French soldier and muslim women, the absence of veils in the photographs and add this to what we can see. Quickly our interpretation changes, we see the women’s expressions as one of protest not discomfort, we see suppression and abuse, and as Carole Nagger (2) suggests, they are symbolic of the collision of two civilisations.

The conclusion is clear. We can only read what Garanger wants to say when we are given enough clues to be able to put his photographs into context. Even as a group what they tell us is at best incomplete and, at worst misleading. In the example of the Algerian women we only needed a small amount of information to be able to unlock the meaning of the photographs which speaks to a question asked by Walter Benjamin:

“Will not the caption become the most important part of the photograph?”

The importance of the caption is an area that Salkeld does not explore in any depth but it reminded me of Anna Fox‘s idea of of using quotes from business books and magazines as captions for her study of office life in the 1970s, an idea I copied in my assignment 3. The use of a caption can provide enough information, or clues, for the viewer to proceed with interpreting the visual clues contained in the photograph. However, regardless of the hints they provide the photographer cannot control all the elements of context as ultimately “beauty is in the eye of the beholder” (3).

We cannot avoid using our prior knowledge when we view a photograph and that knowledge is outside of the photographer’s control but the photographer can sometimes control where we see the photograph and that element of context can significantly impact our interpretation of the image. John Berger says that if we take a photograph of a painting we multiple and fragment the meaning of that picture each time we show the photograph because, by moving it, we are constantly changing the context of the original painting. If a photographer makes a single print and shows that print in a gallery they are controlling its “locational” context. However, as soon as the image is reproduced and shown elsewhere that control is lost and our interpretation increases in subjectivity. I know that where I see an image prejudices my view of it so a news photograph on  the BBC website or on Time Lightbox will tell me that it is true and unadulterated, this, by the way does not make it true or unadulterated because another viewer might distrust one or both of these publishers and take a diametrically opposite view.

Another element of context that is not explored by Salkeld is the importance of the collection or series. Without knowing the answer I wonder whether the idea of a collection is much more important in photography than it is in the other visual arts. Martin Parr is very firm about the need for his pictures to be viewed in the context of the collections he publishes and we understand that the skill of curators is to create and display collections so that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.

I am currently coming to terms with Stephen Shore’s latest book (From Galilee to the Nagrev) and trying to understand how his work has changed, or not, since American Surfaces and Uncommon Places. It has struck me that in “Galilee” there are a number of photos that verge upon being impossible to interpret if viewed completely in isolation, something I did not feel existed in, for example, Uncommon Places. This emphasises the point that, especially in documentary photography, the context of the “rest” of the set is absolutely fundamental to us reading the individual photograph.

This leads to a separate but connected point in that the name of the photographer has a significant impact on how we read an image . Shakespeare tells us that “a rose by any other name would smell as sweet” but I am uncertain whether this is quite so true in the art world. Leading on from my previous point I would suggest that the photographer’s name is less relevant when viewing collections than it is of single image.  Using Stephen Shore as an example again I don’t know how I would read “Tavor River Reserve, January 17, 2010” if it did not have his name on it or I had not seen it in the context of a collection. I cannot find this image on line but it is of a field of fairly featureless long grass taking up 60% of the frame with a pale blue sky. The grassy horizon slopes gently from left to right. It is photo of green emptiness in a flat light that I would not pause to look at if it was taken by the chap next door. Because it is “a” Stephen Shore I have spent quite a bit of time looking at in and interpreting its meaning in its relationship to the other “empty” spaces he has photographed in Israel and the West Bank. This is not to say that we cannot read unknown photographers work but we come at certain photographer’s work knowing something of what they are likely to be saying to us and, dare I say it, with a little awe and an inbuilt tolerance because we assume it must be good and must be meaningful because so and so took it. Being introspective I know that I am more tolerant of a photo that I don’t really like or understand by a photographer that I respect than I am about music. I love the Beatles but some of their tracks are, to me, truly awful. This is probably because we believe we are qualified to judge modern music but, if we don’t understand a famous visual artist’s work it is probably because we think we aren’t clever enough.

A final point might be that our age, race, education, gender, sexuality, faith, politics and nationality, i.e. aspects of our identity that are driven by birth and circumstance have a strong impact on how we read a picture. Marketing and adverting executives understand this better than most and design campaigns to target specific social groups based on these factors (and many more).

The conclusion is that we view a photograph through a lens of complex social factors, knowledge and emotions, where we see the photo, who took it, who published it and in front of that lens we put the filter of semiotics to read the image. It all suggests that the beholder has more influence on the meaning than the photographer.

I’ve enjoyed “Reading Photographs”, it is a primer and needs to be approached with that in mind. It covers a lot of ground at a summarised level but it points the reader in many useful directions for further research and it started me thinking about a number of subjects that I had not previously considered. It is succinct without being superficial, well laid out and because it is essentially a collection of essays it is a book that has longevity on the bookshelf and can act as a first port of call when researching specific subjects within the general area of photographic interpretation.

Sources

Books

(1) Salkeld, Richard. (2014) Reading Photohgraphs: An Introduction to the Theory and Meaning of Images. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC.

Internet

(2) Time Lightbox. lightbox.time.com/2013/04/23/women-unveiled-marc-garangers-contested-portraits-of-1960s-algeria/#1

(3) The Phrase Finder. www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/beauty-is-in-the-eye-of-the-beholder.html

Assignment 3 The Reality and Illusion of Mannequins

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Background and Influences

The aim of Assignment 3 is to show a command of colour in photography. To show this command we are asked to take a series of pictures that exhibit:

  • harmony through complimentary colours;
  • harmony through similar colours;
  • colour contrast;
  • colour accent.

In addition to this brief I wanted to build a series of pictures that challenged me at a creative and technical level and that felt progressional. It is nearly five months since I finished assignment 2 and, in that time, the main focus has been to start studying the evolution of colour photography from William Eggleston in the USA through to Martin Parr in Britain. I have discussed these influences in a separate post (here) and each of the studied artists is separately discussed elsewhere in this blog. (EgglestonShoreParr – Ray-Jones and Parr). I also researched a group of Magnum photographers to understand how they dealt with reflections and, in some cases mannequins (here).

The study of contemporary colour photography is ongoing with many other paths to explore but I have established a simple list of attributes that stand out for me in the work of Eggleston, Shore, Vergara, Parr, Fox and others and that I want to bring to my work:

  • photography is communication, say something;
  • explore strong, saturated colours;
  • have the freedom to use colour in a bold & uninhibited way;
  • work in sets or series and don’t chase single spectacular images;
  • recognise the photographic potential in the banal and in everyday life;
  • remember that every part of the frame has a part to play in composition;
  • create layers of detail that ask the viewer to pause and look more closely;
  • use depth of field to fill the frame in terms of depth as well as vertically and horizontally.

Beyond these general points I am interested in the specific technique of daylight flash or artificial lighting that are notable features of Martin Parr’s and Anna Fox’s work. It brings an additional layer of depth to an image by creating a distinction of light between foreground and background. My choice of subject matter in assignment 3 did not lend itself to this idea so I am exploring it as a personal project (here) with the view to devleoping it in a later assignment.

Tutor feedback on assignment 2 suggested that I could have focussed on developing the theme of abandonment and decay and I have noted several tutor’s comments on the OCA forum about using assignments to create cohesive sets of photographs. In assignment 2 I put achieving the list of design elements ahead of developing a cohesive series of images and feel the submission was weakened by that decision. In this assignment I have come nearer to putting the images and the cohesion of the set first.

Finally I like the idea that Anna Fox used in Workstations of collecting text and images about a single subject and (only) bringing them together in the final edit. Workstations is a collection of photographs taken in offices in the post industrial era of the Margret Thatcher premiership. Fox is quite clear that the photos are a critique of the Thatcher-influenced society but by using quotations from various sources she simultaneously underlines the message of the picture and adds an element of satire and humour. I have chosen to use this idea in assignment 3 and, without any specific pictures in mind, have collected quotations about fashion and by fashionistas which I have only paired with the photos as I placed them into the final presentation.

Mannequins

The mannequin, in its modern form,  started to appear on the high streets of Paris, London and New York in the 1870s and quickly became an essential part of any window display. They have always been much more than an elaborate coat hanger parading the fashionable clothes of the day, but also mimicking the fashionable body shape of their era and appearing in displays that reflect the en-trend topics of the times.

In their day they have been modelled on royalty, film stars, musicians and fashion models; they have been the target of the same campaigners who helped push the American Government into passing the alcohol prohibition laws; there are museums dedicated to them; they star in novels and films; they are an ever present feature of every high street and shopping centre in the developed world.

The Ultimate Role Model

I became intrigued by mannequins when working on my first test shots for assignment 3; shop windows present us with an illusion based on idealised human forms standing behind distorted reflections of the real world so the reality and illusion become interwoven in complex patterns.

From the street we see layer upon layer with varying intensities of lightthe interior of the shop, the mannequins in the window display, the reflections of the street, the shop fronts opposite, and in this mix of interior and exterior, of reflection and reality, of mannequins and people we have the sharp end of a fashion world that uses fibre glass role models to sell clothing designed for super models.

The high street is the public face of an industry employing nearly 1 million people in Britain and contributing more than £21 billion a year to the UK economy and, at the other end of the supply chain, a trade that represents 80% of Bangladesh’s exports? But, behind beautiful mask there is an ugliness.

  • It is an industry built on waste with this season’s lines inevitably destined for next year’s landfill; sustainability and durability are its enemies; fad, whim, self indulgence and disposability its allies.
  • Fast fashion, the rush to bring cheap copies of catwalk designs to the high street, generates a scramble for ever more cost effective supply chains so the rich buying world exploits the poor supply world driving down costs and consuming depleted resources.
  • Sweat shops abound from Asia to the Americas; children, prized for their nibble needlework, make up a substantial part of a workforce housed in unhealthy, dangerous and often deadly factories.
  • Wages in many parts of the world are so low NGOs talk of slave labour.
  • Badly managed farms, being paid the bare minimum for their crop, consume 2,000 litres of water to produce enough cotton to make one t-shirt. A t-shirt that quite probably will be dyed in a factory that blends toxic chemicals with scarce water supplies before discharging poisonous waste, untreated, and often running denim blue, into rivers and oceans.

Closer to home young people are offered abnormal body shapes as desirable, perhaps even essential, so they pursue the “thigh gaps” and “concave stomachs” of unhealthy fashion models who themselves can be suffering from eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia or from substance abuse and alcoholism.

This is the background to my short study of mannequins. In layers of direct and reflected light I set out to capture the cocktail of illusion, fantasy, reality, truth and untruth found in shop windows in every high street. Mannequins mindlessly promote a self obsessed, egotistical and hedonistic industry in denial; a global industry under increasing pressure to address fundamental issues of environment, sustainability, ethics and fair trade on one side of the equation and the physical and mental health of consumers on the other.

The Photographs

Layers are the common thread that link the mannequin series . These can be seen as layers of space or layers of light. For example in fig. 01 there is a “real” layer that includes the mannequins and the shop’s lighting, a two dimensional layer comprised of the photograph of the two models and a reflected layer which appears to be behind the photograph but is, in fact, the nearest layer to the camera. The three layers are presented as a photograph “flattened” into a single two dimensional image.

The three spacial layers often have differing intensities of light within them so there are more layers of light than of space and the relationships and interplay between the layers becomes more complex with similar levels of brightness or tone linking across the spacial layers. The reflections often appear as a backdrop as we sub-consciously decode the layers and place them in logical positions; the mannequins and the photograph are placed in front of the building.

The shop window display presents a world that we know to be an illusion but by consistently associating particular brands or styles with a specific fantasy the fashion industry adds data to, what Walter Benjamin called, our “optical unconscious”. We learn these links between brands and social categories so we know that Ralph Lauren represents the polo set, that gentleman farmers wear brown and green checked shirts, that “Twickenham man” wears a Barbour jacket. Having learnt this code we can dress to tell people how we want them to see us and we can de-code the way a stranger dresses so we know how they wish to be viewed. We don’t assume a person in a Ralph Lauren shirt plays polo with Prince William but we know they want us to see them as a person of style and taste who aspires to drink Pimms at Cowdray Park.

These photographs try to express the complex relationship between society and fashion and between reality and illusion by exploring the layers of space and light in shop windows.

"body attitudes bespeak a visual language that is an integral part of visual merchandising" Marsha Bentley Hale Fig. 1 Pescara - 1/125 @ f/11, ISO 1,600

“body attitudes bespeak a visual language that is an integral part of visual merchandising”
Marsha Bentley Hale

Fig. 01 Pescara – 1/125 at f/11, ISO 1,600 – Colour Accent 

Headless mannequins are often combined with photographs of models to deliver the marketing message. The classic Italian architecture acts as a projection screen for the models and the yellow jacket stands out as an accent in the foreground. The models and the mannequins form a tight central group whose lack of faces allows the ethereal faces of he models to dominate. The tattoo on his right hand looks suspiciously like Margret Thatcher who would be an unlikely, but intriguing, role model for an Italian model.

"we try to use organic fabrics and low impact dyes but we won't do so unless we can achieve a high quality product" Stella McCartney
“we try to use organic fabrics and low impact dyes but we won’t do so unless we can achieve a high quality product”
Stella McCartney

Fig 02 Guildford – 1/125 at f/11, ISO 220 – Colour Accent

The faceless mannequins and the plaques on the wall of the white shop front create wide-mouthed silent screams while the the crossed highlights suggest a more angelic interpretation.  The beams of light are the accent. The seemingly broken mirror might offer a punctum. This is one example of a number of this series where I have looked for very subtle tonal variations rather than dramatic, bright colour variations.

"the shop mannequin sees endless activity that passes for human existence" British Film Council
“the shop mannequin sees endless activity that passes for human existence”
British Film Council

Fig. 03 Pescara – 1/125 at f/11, ISO 10,000 – Colour Accent

A summer clad mannequin watches shoppers huddled under a bright umbrella to escape the rain. The translucent turquoise blouse adds to the mysterious layers in this low light photograph. The bright shop’s lights contrast with the darkening street which is lifted by the splash of colour accent from the umbrella.

"there is a sense of movement, a feeling that someone is there" Tanya Ragir - Mannequin Artist
“there is a sense of movement, a feeling that someone is there”
Tanya Ragir – Mannequin Artist

Fig 04 Guildford – 1/125 at f/11, ISO 450 – Colour Accent

All of the photographs are about mixing reality and fashion but it was difficult to capture real people in a way that worked with the shop displays. In this picture the two photographs and the young women are neatly positioned so each face looks towards the camera. The photographs provide a ghostly presence over the women. The till to the right might be a punctum.

"at each of the six stages to make a garment the negative impacts on the environment are as numerous as they are varied" Bangalore University
“at each of the six stages to make a garment the negative impacts on the environment are as numerous as they are varied”
Bangalore University

Fig.05 Godalming – 1/125 at f/13, ISO 640 – Colour Contrast

Colour contrast between the blue sky, signs and dresses with the red brick buildings on a perfect spring day, in a perfect Surrey dormitory town where the mannequins and models project the classic Surrey “yummy mummy” look onto the quaint, old, town centre shop fronts. The target market for these type of clothes are almost certainly blissfully oblivious of how cotton dresses are produced. As a photograph this is one of a few where the angles, lines and perspective create a sense of movement so we could be passing Godalming on a train. The small figure top right seems to be perched on a window sill looking down on us.

"black is modest and arrogant at the same time, it says I don't bother you - don't bother me" Yohiji Yamamoto
“black is modest and arrogant at the same time, it says I don’t bother you – don’t bother me”
Yohiji Yamamoto

Fig. 06 Pescara – 1/125 at f/11, ISO 6,400 – Colour Contrast

Contrast is between the muted greys, greens and blacks with the bright strip of yellow light from the shop’s interior on a wet day in Pescara. Warm colours dominate the centre and contrast with the many cool colours and tones in the rest of the image. . The perfect mannequins dressed with elegant style in summer dresses contrast the woman wrapped up against the unseasonal spring rain. In addition to the contrasts there is a strong sense of left to right movement created by the perspective and the lines and the women’s direction of travel.

"you know she has been touched by human hand and interpreted by human feelings" Cyril Peck - Mannequin Artist
“you know she has been touched by human hand and interpreted by human feelings”
Cyril Peck – Mannequin Artist

Fig. 07 Guildford – 1/125 at f/8, ISO 1,100 – Colour Contrast

One of the simplest pictures with only a hint of reflection. Blue, pick and yellows are all strongly contrasting. The psychology  of window displays is complex and could be a study in its own right. There are complete mannequins, headless mannequins limbless mannequins, mannequins set in the context of photographs of models, faces with personality, featureless faces and everything in between. Most designers seem to be de-personlising their models yet every now and again there are “human” touches like these two mannequins holding each other’s stylised hands.

"a cosmos of heavenly bodies set in a complex orbit" Prada
“a cosmos of heavenly bodies set in a complex orbit”
Prada

Fig . 08 Citta S’Angelo – 1/125 at f/11, ISO 560 – Colour Contrast

The very bright sunlight has helped create an ethereal scene where it is difficult to distinguish between mannequins and humans and to de-cipher the various layers. The main contrast is between blue and orange but the violet/purple is so strong it creates tension with all the other colours. I think this adds to the other-world feeling. The punctum for me is the silhouette of the boy on his scooter under the eye of the taller silhouette who might be human or mannequin.

"only in an imaginary world can the unexpected and irrational intertwine with spontaneity and naturalness" Dolce and Gabbana
“only in an imaginary world can the unexpected and irrational intertwine with spontaneity and naturalness”
Dolce and Gabbana

Fig. 09 Guildford – 1/125 at f/11, ISO 800 – Complimentary Colours

The greens to the left blend into the reds on the right in a gentle way so the combination of the elderly couple, the empty road, the angle of the photographed model and the two mannequins create a relaxed, Sunday morning (it wasn’t) feel to the composition. This particular shop had large plate glass windows providing sharp reflections and I picked this one partly because of the human couple and partly because everything seems to fit so perfectly together. A “comfort food” sort of photograph.

"avoid the masculinity problem by producing mannequins that are abstract or even completely headless" The Mannequin Mystique
“avoid the masculinity problem by producing mannequins that are abstract or even completely headless”
The Mannequin Mystique

Fig. 10 Pescara – 1/125 at f/11, ISO 10,000 – Complimentary Colours

It was important to me to explore less obvious colours and this is one of a small number of my selected images that are predominantly monochrome. I was looking for tonal relationships away from yellow/blue or green/red and this shot is about these subtleties. The harmony is between the greys and brown/oranges. The composition has a lot of the features I was seeking; the bicycle, the people with umbrellas and the suited mannequin are all in stark contrast with the seemingly incongruous matching bag and shoes.

"they must convey idealised images of ourselves, what we aspire to rather than what we are" Fashion Institute of Technology
“they must convey idealised images of ourselves, what we aspire to rather than what we are”
Fashion Institute of Technology

Fig. 11 Guildford – 1/125 at f/11, ISO 450 – Complimentary Colours

For many years the fashion industry has identified minority sports that few shoppers can or even want to engage in but the private school exclusivity of polo, sailing, rugby and rowing make them attractive as statements of good taste or breeding or manliness. The pale greens and pinks work well together and the interior and exterior combine to create lines of movement from the background into the foreground which seems to work especially well with the sporting theme. The punctum for me is “oars 21% off” – who wants oars and, if they did why would they buy them from a fashion boutique? why 21% not 20% ?.

"able to claim a unique duality in its brand positioning pairing modernity and heritage" Gucci
“able to claim a unique duality in its brand positioning pairing modernity and heritage”
Gucci

Fig. 12 Guildford – 1/125 at f/11, ISO 500 – Complimentary Colours

One of my favourites. with the Modigliani head positioned between the gold clock and the Body Shop sign staring, with no little attitude, into the far distance. The complimentary colours are the red/orange bricks and the blue sky but they are really just a background to the white model in the black dress which are equally complimentary. After all the headless mannequins and the ones with featureless faces this one is creatively sculptured. As often is the case there is also a sense of movement created by the camera angle and the receding perspective.

"androgyny and ethnic diversity rule the creative landscape" Rootstien - Mannequin Manufacturer
“androgyny and ethnic diversity rule the creative landscape”
Rootstien – Mannequin Manufacturer

Fig. 13 Guildford –  1/125 at f/11, ISO 1,100 – Similar Colours

This photographs is in yellow to brown tones and is representative of a common window display where the monochrome and severe lines of thin mannequin are softened by the warm colours of the photographed models. The yellow tape on the scaffolding creates interesting highlights.

"unique mix of innovative audacity and legendary Italian quailty" Gucci
“unique mix of innovative audacity and legendary Italian quailty”
Gucci

Fig. 14 Pescara – 1/125 at f/11, ISO 450 – Similar Colours

I used shop mirrors in a lot of photographs but this was the one that worked the best. The reflection of the piazza is mysterious to the right and left but with window-like clarity in the mirror which also increases our view of the mannequin. The position of the head, just on the skyline, was important to allow her lips to become a focal point. I like the way the street lamp on the right seems large enough to be a large tower. I find a lot of the interest in many of these images is the way in which the reflections can distort scale and shapes which helps my objective of asking viewers to linger and study the image.

"available in male, female or child sizes and any skin colour" Red Beau Mannequins
“available in male, female or child sizes and any skin colour”
Red Beau Mannequins

Fig. 15 Guildford – 1/125 at f/11, ISO 320 – Similar Colours

All the colours are from the quadrant of pink through to yellow and are therefore harmonious. I wanted the photo of the child to tower over the two mannequins which might have been selected to offer ethnic diversity. The old houses opposite create a neutral backdrop.

"models are there to look like mannequins not real people" Grace Jones
“models are there to look like mannequins not real people”
Grace Jones

Fig. 16 Pescara – 1/125 at f/11, ISO 11,000 – Similar Colours

This nearly monochrome image works very well for me. If it is possible to have multiple punctums  there could be two here with the group sitting at the street cafe to the left and the ice cream tricycle to the right and the way that both are framed by the model. I very consciously framed the model to exclude her face as I wanted to reduce her human presence to reflect the idea that a large black and white photograph is probably the cheapest mannequin you can buy so her role is as a mannequin not a woman.

Photography Notes

The subject matter and my approach posed a number of technical challenges. It was essential to use deep DoF to bring out the detail in all the available layers and typically I was photographing from a light place into a dark place through glass and reflections. On the rare occasions when there was a little more light, I under-exposed by 1/3 of a stop to help saturate the colours. The combined result was an exercise in low light photography and I was regularly using high ISOs to get the result I wanted. This doesn’t over-concern me as the images still work at 10 x 8 and whilst a few are grainy this might increase the mystery of the layers. I have post processed to maximise contrast and saturation either by using curves in Photoshop or pro-contrast in Color Efex Pro 4, but I didn’t want the images to look “over-processed” and hope my changes were within the realms of a “light touch”.

I looked at photos of reflections taken by Magnum photographers (here) and this taught me a lot about angles and on how to photograph through glass. I had no wish to include myself in any pictures so straight on (90 degrees) was usually a poor option, 45 degrees or less worked well but very few shots were successful when the “real” street as opposed to the “reflected” street came into the frame. Framing was often quite time consuming as I had to train my eyes to see all the layers at once and frame to combine the shop interiors and the exteriors effectively.

The best results were on days when it was bright enough to have a reasonable difference in the strength of light between the sunnier and shadier sides of the street. The best reflections were obviously achieved looking at the reflections of the sunny side in windows of the shady side. However, on one shoot in Italy the sun was so bright the contrast became too great and very few of the pictures worked (fig. 08 above is one of the few that I think did). Some of best layering effects came when the day was dull and the shop lights started to play a role. I undertook one shoot in an indoor shopping centre in Pescara Nord but there tended to be brighter lights in the shop windows than in the aisles and the reflections were minimal.

I have strayed some distance from the brief both in terms of not varying the subject matter, not creating movement diagrams and not using filters. In my opinion none of these ideas would have added value to what I was trying to achieve but I look forward to hearing my tutor’s views on the matter.

Links to Blog Posts for the Development of Assignment 3

Planning Assignment 3 with Tony Ray-Jones & Martin Parr

Developing Assignment 3

Evolving Assignment 3 – Mannequins

Researching Assignment 3 – Practitioners

Test Shots and More Thoughts for Assignment 3

Steal Like an Artist

Assignment 3 Contact Sheets

Sources

Photographer sources are detailed under each of the blog posts listed above. The following are a list of internet sources that I researched to provide background to the text.

Academia.edu – Fashion Industry and Media Today: The Negative Impact on Society by Ali Malik Al-Azzawi – www.academia.edu/1172572/Fashion_Industry_and_Media_Today_The_Negative_Impact_on_Society

The Daily Record – Damaging effect catwalk models are having on young women – www.dailyrecord.co.uk/lifestyle/fashion-beauty/damaging-effect-catwalk-models-having-1729385

Greenpeace International – Dirty Laundry: Unravelling the corporate connections to toxic water pollution in China – www.greenpeace.org/international/en/publications/reports/dirty-laundry/

Ecologist – Fashion’s Impact on the Earth by Safia Minney – www.theecologist.org/green_green_living/clothing/1055961/safia_minney_fashions_impact_on_the_earth.html

Mannequin Madness – The Mannequin Mystique by Emily and Per Ola dAulaire – mannequinmadness.wordpress.com/the-history-of-mannequin/

Not Just a Label – The Slow Fashion Movement: reversing environmental damage by Maureen Dickson, Carlotta Cataldi & Crystal Grover – www.notjustalabel.com/editorial/the_slow_fashion_movement

The Guardian – Britain’s rag trade revival – www.theguardian.com/fashion/2014/feb/15/britains-rag-trade-revival-marks-and-spencer

The Guardian – Britain’s fashion industry now worth nearly £21bn a year, report reveals by Imogen Fox – www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2010/sep/15/british-fashion-industry-report-business

The Guardian – To Die For: Is fashion wearing out the World? by Lucy Siegle – book review – www.theguardian.com/books/2011/jun/12/to-die-for-lucy-siegle-review

Unicef – Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse – www.unicef.org/protection/57929_55452.html

Steal Like an Artist and an Audience with Anna Fox

Having had a week away the last week has been one of catching up at work and home and this has left little or no time for photography, course work or progressing assignment 3. This morning I planned to focus on assignment 3 or to write up my notes from Anna Fox’s excellent lecture that I attended on Wednesday. However, whilst having my coffee I started to read Steal Like an Artist by Austin Kleon *(1) and ended up reading the whole book before even getting as far as my desk. Austin Kleon describes himself as a writer who draws and as well as publishing his own creative work he has begun to write compact little books about how to make progress as an artist, Steal Like an Artist, which is about inspiration, became a New york Times bestseller, not because thousands of artists purchased it but because the ideas are as applicable to being in business or designing a web page as they are to art. Show your Work *(2), his latest book which I have on my Kindle but haven’r read yet, is about how to get out there and begin to influence others.

Anna Fox and Austin Kleon are quite different sources of inspiration but having been exposed to the ideas of both people this week I have found some common themes that are helping me organise my own thoughts and put a number of diverse strands into some sort of framework. This is distracting me from finishing assignment 3 but might be helping me find the right context for what I am trying to do.

The fundamental idea behind Steal Like an Artist is that all art is based on ideas stolen from other artists. The book is filled with pithy quotes from sources as diverse as T.S.Eliot and David Bowie but, in many ways, they are all variations on the theme of Pablo Picasso’s “Art is theft”. Kleon’s main point is that we must find an artist whose work we love, study this artist in depth, discover who inspired them and, in turn, study that person identifying where they acquired their inspiration and by doing this open new leads to investigate and so on ad infinitum. His thesis is that by taking other people’s work apart to see how it works when you come to put it back together in your own work you should have found something of your own.

After assignment 1 my tutor pointed me towards researching the banal and the mundane as explored by the American “New Colourists”.  William Eggleston led me to Stephen Shore and I spent time first, looking at them individually and then, at the similarities and differences in their work. Whilst their work is exciting I found myself being more interested in the thought processes behind it than in the end result. It took time for me to understand why that was the case and concluded that it was because the locations in William Eggleston’s Guide and Stephen Shore’s Uncommon Places are alien, too specifically American. The photographs that have the most impact upon me depend upon these locations and at this stage I cannot, to use Kleon’s concept, steal those ideas and use them on the Surrey Hampshire borders.

This added impetus to finding more local inspiration and led me to look at Tony Ray-Jones and then Martin Parr. There is a neat line connecting these men as, on the evolutionary tree of photography, Ray-Jones and Parr are on the same branch as Eggleston and Shore along with Garry Winogrand and many others. Parr was influenced by Ray-Jones and is currently curating a joint exhibition of their work.

There are clearly common ideas behind Ray-Jones and Parr’s work and whilst their end product is quite different this commonality of idea underlines one of Kleon’s other key points in that we should not “just steal the style but steal the thinking behind the style”. To steal an idea is harder than copying a style because we have to invest time into researching the artist, finding interviews with them, reading their essays, finding informed reviews and curator’s remarks that provide the backdrop to their work. In essence looking at an artist’s work is not enough, we have to try and understand their thought processes and their intent if we wish to adopt any part of their style.

The strongest link between the work of Ray-Jones, Parr and Anna Fox is their focus on leisure. Although each has worked abroad it is their work looking at the British at leisure that closely connects them not just in subject matter but in the way that they see humour and quirkiness in the British at play. In his introduction to Resort 1 *(4) David Chandler refers to the subject of the “British at Leisure” as a defining one for British Photography for the last forty years and he suggests that the baton has passed from Hinde to Ray-Jones to Parr and on to Fox.

Anna Fox studied under Parr and there are a few other very obvious links. Both work in strong colours, both look at the world with the critical eye of a documentarist and both bring humour to potentially mundane subjects. Another link is that they both have worked at Butlins as photographs (rather than as Red Coats). Parr worked as a Butlins’ employed photographer in 1971 and 1972 before he moved from black and white to colour. I have seen very little of his work from that period but there are a few prints from Butlins by the Sea (1972) in Val Williams’ book Martin Parr *(3) and it is easy to place them into the ancestral lineage of The Last Report which was first published some fourteen years later and collected photos taken from 1983 to 1985.

Anna Fox first worked at Butlins in 2009 on a project approved by, but not soley funded by Butlins. Resort 1 *(4) is the first of two collections of the photographs taken for this project and whilst any stylistic link to Butlins by the Sea would be tenuous it is much easier to connect Resort 1 to Last Resort. Fox uses colour in a bold way, like Parr she takes the ambient lighting conditions out of the equation by, in her case, using lighting rigs with strobes. As a result she creates that same sense of near 3D that is a notable feature of much of Parr’s work. The foreground, and thereby often the main subject, is always slightly brighter than the background and this brings a film set feel to many of the pictures in Resort 1.  Like Parr she explores the extraordinary that, to the less observant eye, is so often masked by the ordinary and has an uncanny knack, which is of course in reality is a great skill, of finding compositions that use colour to link the various components.

Anna Fox Leaving Day 2010

Anna Fox Leaving Day 2010

Anna Fox Wooden Donkeys 2011

Anna Fox Wooden Donkeys 2011

In both the examples above there is an interesting and consistent colour scheme. In Leaving Day the reds in the two foreground childrens’ clothes are picked up by the chalets in the background and this gives the picture an overall impression of reds. In Wooden Donkeys there are a selection of blues, the small boy in the foreground, the girl behind and to the left, the banners, the saddle cloths and the sky, there is an overall impression of blue.

This is not true of every picture in Resort 1 but in many there are one or more pieces of detail colour that carry through to the background and give the overall composition a sense of there being an overriding scheme.

Another link between Parr and Fox is their common interest in the work of the John Hinde Studio who photographed and published postcards of Butlins in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Parr discovered Hinde’s postcards whilst working at Butlins and, according to Val Williams, this was the beginning of his interest in collecting postcards. Fox, on the other hand, directly acknowledges that the style she developed for Resort 1 was influenced by the work of the John Hinde studio. The hallmark of Hinde’s postcards is that they were stage managed productions with lighting, direction and, often, actors in the shape of Butlin’s redcoats pretending to be guests. Fox had started at Butlins taking pictures of adults enjoying themselves on adult only weekends, stag nights, hen parties and the like, and for this she had worked with a portable camera and flash. This approach fitted her subjects and the parties that were unfolding in front of her but when she started to work with family holiday makers she discovered that her subjects were uncomfortable with the street photography or  “paparazzi feel” of this approach. In response she started to use a static 5 x 4″ camera with a lighting system and a team of assistants. This “film set” method, similar to that used by Hinde’s photographers, encouraged her subjects to participate and capture this unique view of modern day Butlins.

I have deviated from my narrative to look at the work of Parr and Fox because it is through these examples that I hope to describe how style theft is good. Kleon makes the point that plagiarism is passing off other people’s ideas as one’s own but imitation is an essential part of the process of developing a style. Anna Fox openly credits Parr and Hinde as influences, her use of daylight flash is “of Parr”, her big production studio sets “of Hinde”, for her subject matter perm any of Ray-Jones, Parr, Hinde, and many others. In Kloen’s terms she has stolen these ideas but there is no doubt that Resort 1 is Anna Fox, not any of the above, nor is it a homage to any of the above. Fox has taken ideas and style and through imitation she has transformed it, we can see the heritage, but her work is distinctly different because she has remixed and reworked, blended and merged, invested her own personality and through all these things created her own unique style.

Steal like an Artist was the right read at the right time partly because I find it reassuring. He describes ways of working that I already follow such as Google everything, read, find as many diverse sources of knowledge as possible, take endless notes, draw pictures, sketch ideas, use the computer as a way of editing, finalising and presenting and not as a way to develop ideas. He says “Your job is to collect good ideas. The more good ideas you collect the more you can choose from to be influenced by.” Kloen presents some key words which need to be born in mind when we steal ideas. We should honour not degrade, study not skim, steal from many not one, credit not plagiarise, transform not imitate and remix not rip-off.

Kleon’s book is, in many ways, about research with the objective of developing a style and his ideas can be expanded upon and taken forward as a framework for study. When I first started with OCA I had no idea on how to research or study photography, instinctively I started looking for photographs I liked and then began to study the photographers who took them. This led me every which way and exposed me to a few new ideas but nothing was exciting me to the point that I wanted to go out and take a “Henri Cartier Bresson” – too black and white, too stuffy, or a “Koudelka” or a “Salgardo” – too dark. I found Camilo José Vergara and immediately wanted to “take photos like that” but I needed to have started thirty years ago as the whole point of his work is the long term documentation of change. Eventually I arrived at Eggleston and Shore that I loved but felt were too American and then I came upon Parr. In one direction this led me to Winnogrand and in the opposite direction to Fox and I have a list of names of other photographers which are still on the research list who are mentioned by or in the context of Parr.

Salvador Dali said that “Those who do not want to imitate anything produce nothing” so Kleon urges us to copy, copy, copy and through this process, and because our copies will not be anywhere near perfect we will find and produce something that is uniquely us.

I have spent a lot of time looking at Shore and Parr and now having been introduced to Fox’s work through the OCA Study Visit I am in the process of adding her to the list. The are many aspects of their work that I want to be take as direct influences or, is it steal?

  • The saturated colours
  • The bold, uninhibited use of colour
  • Working in sets or series and not on individual images
  • Daylight flash
  • Parr and Fox’s types of subjects
  • Fox’s stitching of individual photos to create a memory of a place over a period of time
  • Fox’s idea of collecting text and images separately only bringing them together in the final edit
  • Shore’s use of deep depths of fields making every piece of the frame equally important

The list is longer but the point is made.

From my experience of working with GCSE and A Level students and my own studies I know that subject matter is always a challenge and, in the age of Flickr, there is an over emphasis on “wow factor”, what Roland Barthes might have seen as all studium and no punctum. Anna Fox, in her lecture, talked engagingly about her career which started photographing Basingstoke, a notably un-interesting new town, her project in offices which was published as “Work Stations” and documenting her mother’s cupboards and her local village. Her point is that photography starts at home, She described documentary photography as recording something to give it historical significance and to have it remembered and her photographs of mundane offices in the 1980s, village life in the early 90s, Butlins in the 21st century and her current project in a small French city all fit into this description. Few people would identify any of these subjects as exciting, there is no “wow factor” but she creates compelling and memorable images that will stand the test of time and offer an insightful description of their place and time.

One of the reasons that her work has value is that she has constantly developed her style and used new techniques. She made the point that the fact she had used a technique or was using it now did not mean she would continue to use it so there is obviously an evolution of style in her work. One of her current techniques is to use a static camera to take snapshots of a fluid scene like an airport arrivals hall or a retail shop and then to select several moments from different raw images and to stitch them together to form a memory of a place over time.

Kleon offers similar advice to the artist about subject selection as the better we know and understand something the more easily we will interpret it for others. I am finding it increasingly important to take photos for myself or as Kleon puts it, to write the book we want to read. Bringing these ideas together I conclude that we can pick any subject close to home to document, to give it historical significance and to have it remembered; we can use flash like Parr or static cameras like Shore or Fox or white backgrounds like Bailey as long as we understand why we are using them and that we are using them as part of a process of finding our own voice.

My favourite quote amongst the many in Steal like an Artist provides a fitting conclusion.

“Everything that needs to be said has already been said. But, since no one was listening everything must be said again.” Andre Gide.

Sources

*(1) Kleon, Austin. (2012) Steal Like an Artist. New York: Workman Publishing Inc.

*(2) Kleon, Austin (2014) Show Your Work. New York: Workman Publishing Inc.

*(3) Williams, Val (2002) Martin Parr. London: Phaidon Press Limited.

*(4) Fox, Anna (2013) Resort 1. London: Thames and Huson Limited.

Roland Barthes Camera Lucida

It was suggested that I should read Camera Lucida (1), the last work of French literary theorist and philosopher Roland Barthes. I had previously heard of “studium and punctum” but had not read the original book.

I think of myself as an avid reader, fiction, history, photography, sport, even literature but I found this short book difficult to break into, in fact, often quite impenetrable. Taking the man’s cleverness as a given I can only assume that this book was written for himself or for people skilled at translating the philosopher’s thoughts. I find his style rambling and confusing and his key ideas appear hidden behind a fog of words that, in fairness, might have lost sometime in translation.

At the outset Barthes tells us that he wants to learn, at all costs, what photography was in itself and he goes in search of the fundamental feature that is the basis of all photography. He questions whether photography has a “genius” of its own, something that would set it apart from, what he calls, the community of images. His tone might be interpreted as generally one of disappointment with photography, a medium that he feels  “crushes all other images by its tyranny” and that fails to capture the essence of his dead mother.

Perhaps the genius of photography lies hidden amid his criticisms. If in 1980 he sensed that photography was overwhelming other art what might he think in 2014 when photography has become so overwhelming that we have invented on-line galleries that probably have more images uploaded per day than there are paintings on display in all of galleries in Britain or maybe even Europe yet has it really crushed the other communities of images? The genius of the medium might lie in this accessibility . According to Digitrends (2) every fifteen minutes users of Facebook upload the same number of photographs as are stored in the New York public photo archives. One might argue that the ordinary is swamping the extra-ordinary but this is true of any art form, just travel any distance in a taxi playing Euro pop, or listen to piped music in a shopping centre car park. Barthes appears to argue that quantity, in itself, diminishes an art form and that the quantity in one art form threatens to crush other forms. I do not accept this argument. Graham Clarke (3) in describing the development of the modern camera describes photography as “the most mobile and the most available of visual forms” and the “most democratic art form” and I subscribe to this view. By making photography possible from a telephone, an instrument designed for verbal communication people with no particular technical skills can communicate through images, even moving images. A biscuit tin of dog-eared, black and white family photographs has been replaced by an ever expanding library of photos of family, friends, places and events. The many can now document their lives to a level of detail that was once the preserve of the very few. Some of these pictures will match someone’s expectation of art – Ai Weiwei’s iPhone photo of the Forbidden City springs to mind – and many will not but this should neither diminish their role as a diary of memories, nor as an expression of current emotions, nor as a form of communication. “Look,” “See,” “Here it is,” as Barthes puts it, has value in its own right and who is to say that a cave painting of a bison ever meant more or that Holbein’s portraits say more than “Look,” “See,” “Here he is.”

Henri Cartier Bresson is famous for his “decisive moment” (4) and this is an idea that feels right to many photographers. It is the answer to Barthes’ question as to why we photograph an object at this moment rather than some other because this is the other genius of photography. The art of photography lies in, selection versus exclusion both in terms of subject and time. Stephen Shore, in The Nature of Photographs (5) discusses how we create order out of disorder by selecting a tiny moment in time and freezing it in a photograph. What we select as our subject and what we exclude from our frame is a hard, learnt skill for many of us.

There are clearly many insightful ideas in Camera Lucida , none more so than his much discussed concept of the studium and punctum of a photograph, but there are other truths here that are worth considering. He points out that all photographic portraits are posed because we adjust ourselves in some way when a camera is pointed in our direction and that, to manage this, the photographer becomes involved with manipulating the subject, using props, choosing meaningful backgrounds and that these actions move the portrait even further from the truth. It is of course an equally valid argument to say that the subject manipulates the photographer and the image by posing. He therefore believes that, if the subject is a person, no photograph is a true image capturing inner emotions and feelings. His argument contains some truth but not enough truth to make it a absolute. At one extreme we could look at a selection of Don McCullin’s (6) war photos where the subject is so deeply submerged in their private horror as to be oblivious to the camera, in “A Grunt Suffering Severe Shell Shock” I believe we see in his face a fleeting sense, of what he is feeling. McCullin offers many similar examples that could be categorised as people being so overwhelmed by their circumstances that the photographer is all but invisible to them. On the other extreme we could look at the work of David Bailey whose minimalistic portraits are repeatedly described as capturing the essence of his subjects. If Barthes was to visit the Stardust exhibition (7) would he agree with this view or would he say that the photographer was only capturing what Lennon or Caine or Beuys wanted him to see and that their pose hides the inner man? With Bailey’s portraits I believe there are nearly always two inputs, the visual document as put before us by the collaborative efforts of the subject and the photographer and all the other knowledge or perceived knowledge we have of the subject outside of the photograph, we put these together and might say that he has captured the true image but perhaps only the subject can say whether we are right.

His analysis of why we like or dislike a photograph is at the heart of this book and he takes this thought forward to look at why some photographs have no impact on us at all, leave us so unmoved that we neither like nor dislike them, we are simply unmoved. This was obviously true for Barthes forty odd years ago and is true for us today. We are exposed to countless photographs every day, the internet is so image heavy we are shocked to see a page with more text than pictures, no television news item can just be described, a photograph must be displayed over the newsreader’s shoulder, they arrive unsolicited on our phones, in our email, on every page of the newspaper both in paper and on-line, they adorn every billboard and many shop windows; our world is wallpapered with photographs, so many that it is far too exhausting to take a position on even a small percentage and certainly not all of them so we subconsciously categorise photographs into “like” (a few), “dislike” (a few) and                                                                                                                                                completely ignore all the rest (the many) – the wallpaper? Bizarrely, in a world of too many, I go seeking more, buying photo books, hunting down websites, scouring the bookshelves of every charity shop I pass and in my work for assignment 3 I am even seeking out and photographing photographs; it’s bird spotting in an aviary, or looking for a square inch of art on the wallpaper. Barthes is looking for “adventure”, to be “animated”, to decide whether a photograph “exists” for him and this is his far more elegant way of expressing my “like”, “dislike”, “ignore”.

Barthes is searching for logical rules that explain why we make these choices. He recognises that many photographs are generally interesting and have, what he calls “an average effect” when we look at them in the context of what else we already know. He calls this the studium of a photograph, the photograph is of value, the viewer will have some enthusiasm for it because it documents a subject in way that seems “all right” and communicates, or provides an insight into the intent of the photographer. Beyond that it passes information, we learn something we didn’t know and in that we see that studium is related to study. He points out, that in journalism, the photograph can be interesting without any specific detail interrupting our reading. In effect the studium of a photograph provides a background, in many cases there is only this background but in some cases there is the punctum.

The punctum is the sharp point that pricks our attention and lifts a photograph to another level above just interesting. Barthes describes many examples of photographs that include a punctum and from this analysis we can readily see that, for him, it is a very personal response. In Barthes’ view the photographer cannot insert a punctum, if he or she does he rejects it. “I refuse to inherit something from another eye than my own”. This idea challenges the photographer to capture a subject with enough studium to hold the viewer’s initial interest and to unintentionally include a punctum, not an easy rule to follow. If we believe that the punctum is only ever a highly personal point of detail we, the photographer, will probably search for it in vain. If we believe that it is a point of detail that lifts the photograph to another level and that will be identified and recognised by most viewers we will fail his test but might have succeeded in creating a better or more exciting photograph that stands out from the crowd.

On finishing the book and after writing up my notes I remain a little frustrated by Barthes. I still think that he is very selective in the evidence he submits to prove his arguments and that he looks for rules when perhaps the whole point is that there are non. However, he offers a number of valuable insights that have a practical bearing on the study of photography and beyond that his writing is provocative and demands argument and this alone makes Camera Lucida a worthwhile read.

Sources

Books

(1) Barthes, Roland. (1980) Camera Lucida. London: Vintage Books

(3) Clarke, Graham. (1997) The Photograph. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

(4) Cartier-Bresson, Henri. (1999), The Mind’s Eye, Writings on Photography and Photographers. New York:  Aperture Foundation.

(5) Shore, Stephen, (2007) The Nature of Photographs: Second Edition. New York: Phaidon Press.

(6) McCullin, Don, (1990) Unreasonable Behaviour: 1992 Edition. London: Vintage.

(7) Bailey, David. (2014) Bailey’s Stardust: Published to accompany the exhibition Bailey’s Stardust at the National Portrait Gallery, London from 6th February to 1st June 2014, London, National Portrait Gallery

Internet

(2) Digital Trends www.digitaltrends.com/social-media/nearly-300000-status-updates-are-posted-to-facebook-every-minute/#!Eo6mQ 

Assignment 2 Tutor Feedback and Reflection

I have received my tutor’s feedback on assignment 2. It is included below along with my comments, reactions and reflections. The assignment was submitted on 14th February and the feedback was received back on the 2nd April. I have quite obviously covered a lot of ground in the intervening 6 weeks so a number of feedback comments have been overtaken by events.

” Overall Comments

Again this was another strong submission Steve, including a diverse range of imagery from the Turks and Caicos Islands.

 The issues raised in the previous report are as follows:

  • Further consider the Monochrome versus Colour debate
  • Look at the work of Josef Koudelka in particular relation to image composition.

I can see you have responded very well to this feedback and enjoyed reading about your thoughts on Koudelka (and here and here and here) posted on the blog.

Feedback on assignment

This was a strong series of images Steve, which took the opportunity to develop a themed body of work via a place already full of visual interest.  From a technical perspective I couldn’t really see much wrong with the way in which you construct an image IE: Composition / focus / exposure etc. I do think some worked better than others in my opinion … I’d guess others would have a different opinion though. ”

A Combination of Vertical and Horizontal Lines

Fig. 01 – A Combination of Vertical and Horizontal Lines (Fig. 4 from submission)

” The imagery that stood out for me was as follows: Fig. 4 – Ruined Mansion at Emerald Point. ”

Distinct Shapes

Fig. 02 – Distinct Shapes (Fig. 10 from submission)

” Fig. 10 – Cruise Ship Through Ruin ”

Rhythm

Fig. 03 – Rhythm (Fig. 13 from submission)

” Fig. 13 – Bottles.  This was not to say the other imagery didn’t answer the brief, but just these images stood out for me with the beer bottle on the left of the first step of fig. 04 being the ‘Punctum’ for me personally. “

Response

The “cruise ship through ruin” always felt like one of the strongest images because it had so many graphic design elements to go with the colour and the juxtaposition of the cruise liner on a perfect sea with the ruined building.

I can see why the bottles in fig 13 attracted particular attention as the subject was odd, I felt that this image was the nearest I came to capturing the unusual hidden in full view and, as I said in my submission, it made me feel that I could have created a more interesting set if I had “found” William Eggleston and Stephen Shore before, rather than after the trip. I believe that my subsequent study of Eggleston, Shore, Ray-Jones and Parr have helped me improve my observation skills and become more alert to potential subjects.

It is interesting that “The Ruined Mansion at Emerald Point” appealed and why it appealed. The beer bottle was the special feature for me as well and the sense of something very normal having happened here in the recent past made the ruin more intriguing as it has moved from a millionaire’s holiday retreat to a ruin and appeared to now have a role as a place for someone to sit and drink beer but instead of throwing the bottle onto the piles of rubbish they had carefully placed it on the step.. 

” I thought the idea of exploring this island was already ahead of the game in terms of visual interest. Many of these assignment submissions come in and do not really leave any kind of comfort zone. That is not to say that a series of images must be shot in an exotic location to be of interest … probably the opposite actually, once you scrape the surface.  I did find that the images that intrigued me the most made reference to an area of abandonment or former glory IE: Fig 04 or Fig 10. I think this might have been the theme to explore as many of these relatively new tourist locations have a hidden or unseen past to explore, with deep significance. “

Response

I am in total agreement and the idea that developed on location was exactly that. I initially wanted to bring together a combination of ruins, abandonment, new developments,  the degeneration of new and old and the restored and unrestored historic colonial buildings to paint a picture of flawed progress. However, and I see this as the fundamental challenge of these assignments, instead of selecting 15 images that told this story I had to find 15 images that told this story and “ticked off” the various design elements. In editing I had to choose between the story, the strongest images and exhibiting the design elements and these objectives were often mutually exclusive.

To satisfy my own need for the story I pursued three themes in parallel. I looked for the design elements, I worked towards a study of degeneration  and looked for ways to document the islands without producing a cliché ridden travel guide. (here and here)

In a few cases the three objectives intersected and where that happened I captured the strongest images in the submission. I didn’t want to shoehorn in an image that fitted the theme of the series when it was a weak answer to the design criteria but I also felt uncomfortable broadening the series to include images that fitted the criteria but were not as strong in terms of the theme.

I do not intend to use this as an excuse to ignore the assignment or to argue that my work would have reached great heights if only I had not been constrained of the assignment. The test is to present strong images, tell the story and meet the criteria. However, I am close to completing my shoots for assignment 3 and know that the images collected so far are tending to place theme above the perfect completion of the assignment criteria so only time will tell whether that is a step in the right direction in terms of feedback and assessment.

Implied Triangle

Fig 04 – Implied Triangle The Conch Fisherman

” I also liked the action portrait of the Conch fisherman, but felt this might have worked better if it had been shot deliberately, with collaboration, in a setting where the background gave significance or context to the image. “

Response

Point taken and accepted. I took half a dozen pictures of this chap and whilst he was willing to chat about his trade and was quite friendly I’m not sure whether I could have tempted him to collaborate. The resident population, or “belongers” as they call themselves, are not especially comfortable with tourists who presumably might be called  “unbelongers”. I recently watched the excellent Bill Nighy drama “Turks and Caicos” and the point was made there that the locals just clean up after rich tourists. 

But, back to the point. I could have used one of the following shots of the same man as these contain far more context but de-power the design element but this does raise another issue which I struggled with when editing the series. In his feedback to assignment 1 my tutor suggested that I should not mix the aspect of my prints, i.e. do not mix horizontal aspect and vertical aspect prints in the same submission. I subsequently used the OCA forum to ask whether this was the general view. The tutors on the forum did express the same view so all of assignment 2 was presented as horizontal aspect prints.

I am still struggling with this inferred rule. Whilst I recognise that the majority of photo books have a consistent format there are many examples where the occasional vertical or square aspect is included in a book of horizontal aspect prints. I also noted that David Bailey did not feel constrained in his Stardust Exhibition where he mixed vertical and horizontal on the same wall or where he created photo montages of related prints in single frames that included square, vertical and horizontal.

If I had not felt bound by this inferred rule I would have used 2 or 3 vertical prints including fig. 05 below.

Fig. 05 Conch Fisherman - 1/500 at f/8, ISO 100. 50mm prime lens

Fig. 05 Conch Fisherman – 1/500 at f/8, ISO 100. 50mm prime lens

Fig. 06 Conch Fishermen - 1/500 at f/8, ISO 100. 50mm prime lens

Fig. 06 Conch Fishermen – 1/500 at f/8, ISO 100. 50mm prime lens

” When you look at a series of images and one makes you stop, this can be referred to in terms of what Roland Barthes would call ‘Studium’ or a general enthusiasm or interest assigned to an image. This is as opposed to something that might be classed as a rare detail or piercing moment of either pain or delight, which Barthes would term ‘Punctum’.  I have listed a publication below by Barthes entitled Camera Lucida, which I urge you to read in relation to developing your photographic critical position.

Learning Logs or Blogs/Critical essays

The Blog is working very well for you and you appear to be updating it regularly, which is excellent. It is very easy to navigate and contains some really strong and diverse research, which is excellent at this stage of the degree. Just check the spelling of the ‘Bibliography’ link.

Suggested reading/viewing

Parr, M.2004:Think of England. London. Phaidon Press Ltd.  (see follow up work here)

ISBN-13:978 – 0714844541

Eggleston, W.2002: William Eggleston’s Guide. New York. MOMA Press  (see follow up work here)

ISBN-13: 978-0870703782

Shore, S.2004: Uncommon Places. London. Thames & Hudson  (see follow up work here and here)

ISBN-13: 978-0500542873

Barthes, Roland.1993: Camera Lucida. Vintage Classics. London. (see follow up work here)

ISBN 13: 978-0099225416

Response

I also felt that leading into assignment 3 was the right time to explore Martin Parr. I have seen extracts from “Think of England” in Val William’s book on Martin Parr and have ordered “Think of England” but it is currently out of stock at Amazon. I have completed a review of “The Last Resort” (here) and although my choice of subject for assignment 3 is quite a long way from Parr’s style his approach has helped me understand the key role that observational skills play in photography.

 In his feedback on assignment 1 my tutor suggested that I start to research the banal and this of course quickly led me to William Eggleston and the new colour movement. I have already completed my shoots for assignment 2 when I received this advice but I have spent a lot of time researching Eggelston (here and here) and that led me to Stephen Shore and Uncommon Places (here) and ultimately to Tony Ray-Jones (here) and Martin Parr (here)

” Pointers for the next assignment

Apologies about the late response regarding this feedback, as I note you already have looked at some of these practitioners in relation to assignment 3. Anyway ….. please use the following to inform assignment 03 – Martin Parr, William Eggleston and Stephen Shore. Parr is a well known Magnum Photographer, so it may also serve you well to try and become acquainted with what the Magnum Photo Agency [http://www.magnumphotos.com] is all about. The other two [Eggleston & Shore] are very important American photographers especially in relation to the use of ‘Colour Photography’.

Eggleston in particular is cited as being the photographer who introduced the art world to Colour Photography, with his ground breaking exhibition at MOMA in New York in 1976.  Prior to this, most serious photography had been monochrome.

Lastly, regarding work already conducted on assignment 3 – in relation to reflections / portraits, please see the work Tom Wood conducted from Merseyside buses in the 1980’s called ‘All Zones Off Peak’.

I hope this is of help to you Steve and I look forward to your next assignment.

Response

Very helpful pointers and I sense that Parr, Eggleston and Shore are ideal influences at this stage. I have used the Magnum site extensively as it bypasses the frustrations of general image searches on the internet where separating the wheat from the chaff is laborious and frustrating.  Magnum has two massive advantages, they are all photographers at the top of their profession and the site has a powerful search engine so it is very easy to focus in on a single topic across many practitioners. They also provide a historical and contemporary cross section of styles so it is possible to find very different approaches to the same subject.

I will certainly look into Tom Wood, I did see some of his work when I helped take a school party to London last year but I will now search out images from “All Zones Off Peak”. It is too expensive to buy a copy as it is currently showing on Amazon at £165.

Overall Reflective Comments

I would obviously have been happier if more of the submission images had made the “short list”, 4 out of 15 seems a poor hit rate, but looking back on the submission six weeks down the track I fully accept that they were not all strong enough and, if I was to assess them now I would have only added 1 or 2 more to the “short list”. As mentioned above, I feel the key is to ensure the theme and what I want to say is given priority over ticking off the assignment criteria and I need to push further out to test where this takes me. 

There are a lot of lessons to be learnt from my tutor’s remarks and whilst I have collected plenty of test shots and have some potential final images for assignment 3 there is still plenty of time to use his guidance to good effect. 

Eggleston, Shore, Ray-Jones and Parr are influencing the way I observe but I am not seeing a clear influence coming through in my photos. There are fleeting glimpses of the way they see and capture the world in a some very isolated examples of the pictures I have taken in the last month so hope still springs eternal. I would have given myself a better chance of showing their influence more directly if I had chosen a different subject for assignment 3 as I have not come across many reflections or mannequins in their work.